History of Islam
Taken from: http://www.pak.gov/
Courtesy of ISL Software, makers of the WinAlim Islamic database.
6th Century (500-599) C.E.
545: Birth of Abdullah, the Holy Prophet’s father.
571: Birth of the Holy Prophet. Year of the Elephant. Invasion of Makkah by Abraha the Viceroy of Yemen, his retreat.
577: The Holy Prophet visits Madina with his mother. Death of his mother.
580: Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of the Holy Prophet.
583: The Holy Prophet’s journey to Syria in the company of his uncle Abu Talib. His meeting with the monk Bahira at Bisra who foretells of his prophethood.
586: The Holy Prophet participates in the war of Fijar.
591: The Holy Prophet becomes an active member of “Hilful Fudul”, a league for the relief of the distressed.
594: The Holy Prophet becomes the Manager of the business of Lady Khadija, and leads her trade caravan to Syria and back.
595: The Holy Prophet marries Hadrat Khadija.
7th Century (600-699) C.E.
605: The Holy Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.
610: The first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. The Holy Prophet is commissioned as the Messenger of God.
613: Declaration at Mt. Sara inviting the general public to Islam.
614: Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam.
615: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for Abyssinia.
616: Second Hijrah to Abysinnia.
617: Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Holy Prophet by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.
619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadija. Year of sorrow.
620: Journey to Taif. Ascension to the heavens.
621: First pledge at Aqaba.
622: Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib.
623: Nakhla expedition.
624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Madina.
625: Battle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr.
626: Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.
627: Battle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews.
628: Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet addresses letters to various heads of states.
629: The Holy Prophet performs the pilgrimage at Makkah. Expedition to Muta (Romans).
630: Conquest of Makkah. Battles of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif.
631: Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations.
632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah.
632: Death of the Holy Prophet. Election of Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Caliph. Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq. Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar.
1001: Mahmud Ghazanavi defeats the Hindu Shahis.
1004: Mahmud captures Bhatiya.
1005: Mahmud captures Multan and Ghur.
1008: Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy.
1019: Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud Ghazanavi.
1030: Death of Mahmud Ghazanavi.
1041: The Ghazanavid Sultan Muhammad is overthrown by Maudud.
1095: The first crusade.
1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem.
1179: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Mustazaii, accession of Al Nasir. Shahab ud Din Ghuri captures Peshawar.
1186: The Ghurids overthrow the Ghaznvaids in the Punjab.
1187: Salah ud Din wrests Jerusalem from the Christians, third crusade.
1191: Battle of Tarain between the Rajputs and the Ghurids.
1193: Death of Salah ud Din; accession of Al Aziz. Second battleof Tarain.
1194: Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims. End of the Seljuk rule.
1199: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Tukush Shah; accession of Ala ud Din. Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub; accession of Muhammad Nasir. Conquest of Northern India and Bengal by the Ghurids.
1202: Death of the Ghurid Sultan Ghias ud Din; accession of Mahmud.
1204: Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks.
1206: Death of Shahab ud Din Ghuri. Qutb ud Din Aibik crowned king in Lahore.
1210: Assassination of the Ghurid Sultan MahmUd, accession of Sam. Death of Qutb ud Din Aibak, accession of Aram Shah in India.
1211: End of the Ghurid rule, their territories annexed by the Khawarzam Shahs. In India Aram Shah overthrown by Iltutmish.
1230: End of the Khawarzam Shah rule.
1236: Death of Delhi Sultan Iltutmish. Accession of Rukn ud Din Feroz Shah.
1237: Accession of Razia Sultana as Delhi Sultan.
1240: Death of Ar-Rashid; accession of his son Abu Said.
1241: Death of Razia Sultana, accession of Bahram Shah.
1242: Death of Bahram Shah, accession of Ala ud Din Masud Shah as Delhi Sultan. Death of the Al Mohad rules Abdul Wahid, accession of Abu Hasan. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustansir, accession of Mustasim.
1245: The Muslims reconquer Jerusalem.
1246: Death of the Delhi Sultan Ala ud Din Masud Shah, accession of Nasir ud Din Mahmud Shah.
1262: Death of Bahauddin Zikriya in Multan who is credited with the introduction of the Suhrawardi Sufi order in the IndoPakistan sub-continent.
1265: Death of Halaku. Death of Fariduddin Ganj Shakkar the Chishti saint of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.
1267: Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in Indonesia. Murtada seeks the help of the Christians, and the Spaniards invade Morocco. The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco. Assassination of Murtada; accession of Abu Dabbas.
1286: Death of Ghiasuddin Balban. Death of Abu Yusuf Yaqub. Bughra Khan declares his independence in Bengal under the name of Nasiruddin.
1290: End of the slave dynasty Jalaluddin Khilji comes into power. Othman embarks on a career of conquest and by 1290 C.E. most of the Central Maghreb is conquered by the Zayanids.
1296: Alauddin Ghazan converted to Islam.
1299: Mongols invade Syria. The Marinids besiege Tlemsen the capital of the Zayanids.
1301: In Bengal, Death of Ruknuddin the king of Bengal, succeeded by brother Shamsuddin Firuz.
1304: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Ghazan, succession of his brother Khudabanda Ul Jaytu. In Algeria, Death of Othman, succession of his son Abu Zayan Muhammad.
1305: In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin Khilji conquers Rajputana.
1306: In the Chughills empire, Death of Dava, succession of his son Kunjuk.
1314: In Kashmir, Rainchan an adventurer from Baltistan overthrows Sinha Deva the Raja of Kashmir. Rainchan is converted to Islam and adopts the name of Sadrud Din.
1316: In the Khiljis empire, Death of Alauddin, accession of Shahabuddin Umar, usurpation of power by Malik Kafur, a Hindu convert.
1318: In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Malik Kafur, deposition of Shahabuddin Umar, accession of Qutbuddin Mubarak. In the Chughills empire, Isan Buga overthrown by Kubak.
1320: In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Qutbuddin Mubarak, usurpation of power by Khusro Khan a Hindu convert. Khusro Khan overthrown by Ghazi Malik. End of the rule of Khiljis. In the Tughluqs empire, Ghazi Malik founds the rule of the Tughluq dynasty.
1321: In the Chughills empire, Death of Kubak, succession of Hebbishsi who is overthrown by Dava Temur.
1322: In the Chughills empire, Dava Temur overthrown by Tarmashirin, who is converted to Islam. In Bengal, Death of Shamsuddin Firuz. The kingdom divided into two parts. Ghiasuddin Bahadur became the ruler of East Bengal with the capital at Sonargaon, Shahabuddin became the ruler of West Bengal with the capital at Lakhnauti.
1324: In Bengal, Shahabuddin dies and is succeeded by his brother Nasiruddin.
1325: In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghazi Malik (Ghiasuddin Tughluq); accession of his son Muhammad Tughluq. In the Samudra Pasai empire, Death of Malik al Tahir I, accession of Malik al Tahir II. In Bengal, With the help of Ghiasuddin Tughluq, Nasiruddin over-throws. Ghiasuddin Bahadur and himself become’s the ruler of United Bengal.
1329: In the Tughluqs empire, Muhammad Tughluq shifts the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Deccan.
1331: In Bengal, Annexation of Bengal by the Tughluqs.
1335: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Abu Said, power captured by Arpa Koun. In the Chughills empire, Assassination of Changshahi, accession of Burun.
1336: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Arpa defeated and killed, succeeded by Musa. Birth of Amir Temur. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Amir Hussain, succession of Hasan Buzurg. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks annex the state of Karasi. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Sonargeon assassinated by armour bearer who captured power and declared his independence assuming the name of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah.
1339: In Kashmir, Death of Sadrud Din, throne captured by a Hindu Udyana Deva. In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Burun, accession of Isun Temur. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Lakhnauti-Qadr Khan assassinated and power is captured by the army commander-in-chief who declares his independence and assumes the title of Alauddin Ali Shah.
1343: In the Chughills empire, Muhammad overthrown, power captured by Kazan. In Bengal, Ilyas an officer of Alauddin murders his patron and captures the throne of West Bengal.
1344: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Deposition of Sulaiman, succession of Anusherwan.
1345: In the Samudra Pasai empire, Death of Malik al Tahir II, accession of Tahir III. His rule lasted throughout the fourteenth century. In Bengal, llyas captures East Bengal and under him Bengal is again united. He establishes his capital at Gaur.
1346: In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Kazan, accession of Hayan Kuli. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Bakr, succession of his son Fadal. In Kashmir, Death of Udyana Deva, throne captured by Shah Mirza who assumed the name of Shah Mir, and rounded the rule of Shah Mir dynasty.
1347: The Marinids capture Tunisia. In the Bahmanids empire, Hasan Gangu declares his independence and establishes a state in Deccan with the capital at Gulbarga.
1349: In Kashmir, Death of Shah Mir, accession of his son Jamsbed.
1351: In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Muhammad Tughluq accession of Firuz Shah Tughluq.
1362: In Kashmir, Death of Alauddin Ali Sher, succeeded by his brother Shahabuddin.
1376: In Kashmir, Death of Shahabuddin, succeeded by his brother Qutbuddin.
1377: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Shah, succeeded by his son Mujahid.
1378: In the Bahmanids empire, Mujahid assassinated, throne captured by his uncle Daud.
1379: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Bairam Khawaja found the independent principality of the Turkomans of the Black Sheep and established his capital at Van in Armenia. In the Bahmanids empire, Assassination of Daud; accession of Muhammad Khan.
1388: In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Firuz Shah Tughluq, succeeded by his grandson Ghiasuddin Tughluq II.
1389: In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of the poet Hafiz Shirazi. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghiasuddin Tughluq II, accession: of Abu Bakr Tughluq Shah. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Muhammad. succession of Qara Yusuf.
1390: In the Tughluqs empire, Abu Bakr overthrow by Nasiruddin Tughluq. In Bengal, Death of Sikandar Shah, accession of his son Ghiasud. In the Burji Mamluks empire, The rule of the Burji Mamluks rounded by Saifuddin Barquq.
1391: In Amir Temur’s empire, Annexation of Fars. In the Muzaffarids empire, Annexation of the Muzaffarids by Amir Temur.
1397: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Khan.
1398: In the Amir Temur’s empire, Campaign in India. In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris II. In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of Amir Timur, Mahmud Shah escapes from the capital.
1414: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Karim Bardo, installation of Kubak Khan.
1416: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Kubak Khan, installation of Jahar Balrawi. Deposition of Jahar Balrawi, installation of Chaighray.
1419: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Edigu, overthrow of Chaighray, power captured by Ulugh Muhammad.
1501: Isamil I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia, and the Twelve-Imam Shi’ism becomes the state religion.
1526: The Battle of Panipat in India, and the Moghul conquest; Babur makes his capital at Delhi and Agra.
1550: The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Atjeh in Sumatra.
1550: Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas, and Borneo.
1556: The death of Sulayman the Magnificent.
1568: Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism) in Spain.
1600: Sind annexed by the Mughals. End of the Arghun rule in Sind.
1601: Khandesh annexed by the Mughals.
1604: In Indonesia death of Alauddin Rayat Shah, Sultan of Acheh, accession of Ali Rayat Shah III.
1605: Death of the Mughal emperor Akbar; accession of Jahangir.
1607: Annexation of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals.
1609: Annexation of Bidar by the Mughals
1611: Kuch Behar subjugated by the Mughals.
1612: Kamrup annexed by the Mughals.
1618: Tipperah annexed by the Mughals.: ‘
1627: Death of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, accession of Shah Jahan.
1628: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I comes to an end.
1631: Death of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and the lady of Taj Mahal, Agra.
1637: Death of Iskandar Muda in Indonesia; accession of Iskandar II.
1641: In Indonesia death of Iskandar II; accession of the Queen Tajul Alam.
1658: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, accession of Aurangzeb.
1661: Death of Muhammad Kuiprilli, accession of his son Ahmad Kuiprilli.
1667: Death of Shah Abbas II; accession of Shah Sulaiman.
1675: Execution of the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. In Indonesia death of the queen Tajul Alam, accession of the queen Nur ul Alam.
1678: In Indonesia death of the queen Nur ul Alam, accession of the queen Inayat Zakia.
1680: Death of Marhatta chieftain Shivaji.
1682: Assam annexed by the Mughals. Aurangzeb shifts the capital to Aurangabad in the Deccan.
1686: Annexation of Bijapur by the Mughals.
1687: Golkunda annexed by the Mughals. Second battle of Mohads.
1688: In Indonesia death of queen Inayat Zakia, accession of the queen Kamalah.
1699: In Indonesia death of Queen Kamalah.
1700: Murshid Quli Khan declares the independence of Bengal and establishes his capital at Murshidabad.
1703: Ahmad 11I becomes the Ottoman Sultan. Birth of Shah Wali Ullah. Birth of the religious reformer Muhammad b Abdul Wahab.
1707: Death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, accession of his son Bahadur Shah.
1711: War between Turkey and Russia. Russia defeated at the battle of Pruth.
1712: Death of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah, accession of Jahandar Shah.
1713: Jahandar Shah overthrown by his nephew Farrukh Siyar.
1718: In the war against Austria, Turkey suffers defeat. By the treaty of Passarowich Turkey loses Hungary.
1719: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar Muhammad Shah ascends the throne. In Sind the Kalhoras came to power under Nur Muhammad Kalhora.
1722: Saadat Khan found the independent state of Oudh. Battle of Gulnabad between the Afghans and the Persians. The Persians were defeated and the Afghans under Shah Mahmud became the masters of a greater part of Persia. Shah Hussain taken captive, accession of Shah Tahmasp II.
1730: Zanzibar freed from Portugese rule and occupied by Oreart.
1747: Ahmad Shah Durrani established Afghan rule in Afghanistan.
1752: Death of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, writer of Sassi Pannu, Sohni Mahinwal and Umer Marvo.
1752: Ahmed Shah Durrani captured Punjab, Kashmir and Sind.
1761: Death of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi.
1761: Battle of Panipat. Ahmad Shah Durrani came to India at the invitation of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi and smashed rising Maratha power in the battle of Panipat.
1764: Conversion to Islam of Areadi Gaya. ruler of Futa Bandu State in West Sudan.
1773: Death of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
1783: End of Kalhora rule in Sind.
1797: Death of Muhammad Khan Qachar, king of Persia.
1797: Russia occupied Daghestan.
1799: Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharajah of Punjab defeating Afghans.
1799: Khoqand declared independent Islamic State.
19th Century (1800-1899) C.E.
1803: Shah Abdul Aziz ibn Saud assassinated by a Shia fanatic. Shah Shuja proclaimed as King of Afghanistan.
1805: Ibn Saud captured Madinah defeating the Turk garrison.
1804: Othman Dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Central Sudan.
1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Turks.
1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan.
1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria.
1811: Birth of Ali Muhammad Bab founder of Bab movement.
1811: British occupied Indonesia.
1812: Madina fell to Egyptians.
1813: Makkah and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis expelled from Hijaz.
1814: Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as Definitive Treaty.
1814: Death of Ibn Saud II.
1814: King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud.
1816: British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch.
1822: Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco.
1827: Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo- Netherland treaty in 1824.
1828: Russia declared war against Turkey.
1829: Treaty of Adrianople.
1830: French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria ending 313 years rule of Turks.
1831: Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail leaders of Jihad movement in India fell fighting the Sikhs in Balakot.
1832: Turks defeated in the battle of Konia by Egyptian forces.
1832: Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar.
1834: Abdul Qadir recognised as ruler of the area under his control by the French.
1839: Defeat of Turkey by the Egyptians in the battle of Nisibin.
1840: Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish Syria.
1840: British frees occupied Aden.
1841: State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria.
1842: Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French. crossed over to Morocco.
1842: Shah Shuja assassinated ending the Durrani rule in Afghanistan.
1847: Amir Abdul Qadir surrendred to France under the condition of safe conduct to a Muslim country of his choice but France violated its pledge and sent him as a captive to France.
1849: Death of Muhammad Ali pasha.
1850: Ali Muhammad Bab arrested and executed by Iranian government. Qurratul Ain Tabira, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of Babism also shot dead.
1852: Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napolean III. He settled in Turkey.
1855: Khiva annexed by Russia.
1857: British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years. Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon in Burma. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India.
1859: Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces and the Islamic State of Daghestan became a Russian province.
1860: Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain.
1861: Death of Sultan Abdul-Majid of Turkey.
1862: Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan..
1865: Khoqand State liquidated by Russia.
1869: Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt.
1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Turkey through a Firman.
1876: Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal and got involved in Egyptian affairs.
1878: Turkey handed over Cyprus to Britain.
1878: Adrianople fell to Russia.
1879: Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Egypt.
1879: Treaty of Berlin. Turkey lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe.
1881: France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy of France as a result of the treaty of Bardo.
1881: Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan.
1882: Egypt came under British military occupation.
1883: Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.
1885: Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his rule.
1885: Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartum.
1890: End of Banbara State.
1895: Afghanistan got Wakhan corridor by an understanding with Russia and British India making Afghan border touch China.
1895: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed prophethood.
1897: State of Bagirimi occupied by the French.
1899: Fall of Mahdi State occupied by the British and the Egyptians jointly.
20th Century (1900-1992) C.E.
1901: Ibn Saud (Abd al-Aziz) captures Riyad.
1901: French forces occupy Morocco.
1904: Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Conference of Algeciras.
1904: The Presian constitution is promoted.
1905: The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with it’s main sphere of influence in Egypt.
1907: The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.
1912: The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in Indonesia.
1914: Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed.
1914: World War I.
1916: Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway.
1918: Armistice signed with Ottomans on October 30.
1918: World War I ends on November 11.
1918: Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.
1921: Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
1921: Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca.
1921: Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the “Republic of the Rif”.
1922: Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Turkish Sultanate.
1924: The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.
1924: King Abd al-Aziz conquers Mecca and Medina, which leads to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz.
1925: Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty.
1926: Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) assumes title of King of Najd and Hijaz.
1927: Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.
1928: Turkey is declared a secular state.
1928: Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood.
1932: Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.
1934: War between King Abd al-Aziz and Imam Yahya of the Yemen.
1934: Peace treaty of Ta’if.
1934: Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.
1935: Iran becomes the official name of Persia.
1936: Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine.
1939: World War II.
1941: British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran.
1943: Beginning of Zionist terrorist campaign in Palestine.
1945: End of World War II.
1946: Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France.
1947: Creation of Pakistan from Muslim Majority area in India.
1948: Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Israel.
1949: Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated.
1951: Libya becomes independent.
1952: King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate.
1953: General Zahedi leads coup against Musaddeq, Shah returns to power.
1953: Death of King Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) of Saudi Arabia.
1953: The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet’s mosque in Medina.
1956: Morocco becomes independent.
1956: Tunisia becomes independent.
1957: The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes becomes president.
1957: Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins.
1962: Algeria becomes independent.
1962: Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.
1965: Malcom X is assassinated.
1968: The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed.
1969: King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi.
1973: King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown.
1975: Death of Elijah Mohammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America.
1975: Wallace Warith Deen Mohammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy renaming it American Muslim Mission.
1978: Imam Musa Sadr is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to Libya. He was the religious leader of the Lebanese Twelve-Imam Shi’ites. He promoted the resurgence of Shi’ites in Lebanon and set the foundation of Amal.
1979: The Shah leaves Iran on January 15, thus bringing the Pahlavi dynasty to an end.
1979: On 1 Muharram AH 1400/21 November, the first day of the 15th Islamic century, fanatics led by students of the Theological University of Medina attempt to promote one of their group as Mahdi and thus fulfill a certain prophetic Hadith: “A man of the people of Medina will go forth, fleeing to Mecca, and certain of the people of Mecca will come to him and will lead him forth against his will and swear fealty to him between the rukn (Black Stone corner of the Kabah) and the Maqam Ibrahim.” They hold the Haram of Mecca against the army for two weeks. Sixty-three of the 300 fanatics are captured alive, the mosque is recovered, and the conspirators are all put to death.
1980: Beginning of the Iran-Iraq war.
1989: Iran-Iraq comes to an end with much loss of life.
1990: Military annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, under Ba’athist leader Saddam Hussain, is reversed in 1991 by a coalition of United States-led forces.
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