Yoga Sutra of Patanjali
Copyright © 1998 Yoga Anand Ashram
Chapter 1: Samadhi Pada
1. Now instruction in yoga. .
2. Yoga is the restraint of fluctuations of he mind.
3. Then there is abiding in the seer’s own form.
tada drastuh sva rupe’vasthanam
4. Ignorance is the origin of the others, whether dormant, attenuated, interrupted, or fully
avidya ksetram uttaresam prasupta-tanu-vicchina-udaranam
5. At other times it takes the form of the fluctuations.
6. Valid cognition, error, conceptualization, sleep, and memory.
7. Valid cognitions are perception, inference, and valid testimoy.
8. Error is false knowledge, without foundation.
viparyayo mithya-jnanam atad rupa-pratistham
9. Conceptualization is the result of words and ideas empty of object.
sabda-jnananupati vastu-sunyo vikalpah
10. The sleep fluctuation is based on the intention of nonbecoming.
abhava-pratyaya-alambana vrtti nidra
11. Memory is the recollection of an experienced condition.
12. Through practice and dispassion arises restraint.
abhyasa-vairagyabhyam tan nirodhah
13. Effort in remaining there is practice.
tatra sthitau yatno’bhyasah
14. But that is firmlt situated when carefully attended to for a long time without interuption.
sa tu dirgha-kala-nairantarya-satkara-asevito drdha-bhumih sah
15. Dispassion is the knowledge of mastery in one who thirsts not for conditions seen or heard.
drsta-anusravika-visaya-vitrsnasya vasikara-samjna vairagyam
16. That highest (dispassion) – thirstlessness for the gunas – [proceeds] from
the discernment of purusa.
tat param purusa-khyater buna-vaitrsnyam
17. Samprajnata [arises] from association with discursive thought, reflection, bliss, and
18. The other (state)* has samskara only and is proceded by practice and the intention of cessation.
*Referred to by Vyasa as “asamprajnata samadhi. ”
19. Of the one who are absorbed inprakriti and discarnate, [there is] an intention of becoming.
20. Of the others it is proceded by faith, energy, mindfulness, samadhi, and wisdom.
21. The strongly intense ones are near.
22. Hence the distinctions of mild, moderate, and ardent.
mrdu-madhya-adhimatratvat tato’pi visesah
23. Or from dedication to Isvara.
24. Isvara is a distinct purusa untouched by afflictions, actions, fruitions, or their residue.
klesa-karma-vipakasayair aparamrstah purusa-visesa isvarah
25. There the seed of omnisccience is unsurpassed.
tatra niratisayam sarva-jna-bijam
26. Due to its being unlimited by time, it is the teacher of the prior ones.
Purvesam api guruh kalena anavacchedat
27. Its expression is pranava (OM).
tasya vacakah pranavah
28. Repetition of it and realization of its purpose [should be made].
taj japas tad artha-bhavanam
29. Thus inward consciousness is attained and obstacles do not arise.
30. These obstacles, distractions of the mind, are: sickness, dullness, doubt, carelessness, laziness, sense addiction, false view, non-attainment of a stage, and instability. .
31. A dissatisfied, despairing body and unsteady inhalation and exhalation accompany the distractions.
32. For the purpose of countering them, [there is] the practice of one thing (eka-tattva).
tat pratisedha-artham eka-tattva-abhyasa
33. Clarification of the mind [results] from the cultivation of friendliness, compassion,
happiness, and equanimity in conditions of pleasure, dissatisfaction, merit, and absence of merit, respectively.
punya-apunya-visayanam bhavanatas citta prasadanam
34. Or by expulsion and retention of breath.
pracchardana-vidharanabhyam va pranasya
35. Or steady binding of the mind-organ arises in activity of involvement with a condition.
visaya-vati va pravrttir utpanna manasah sthiti-nibandani
36. Or having sorrowless illumination.
visoka va jyotismati
37. Or [on a] mind in a condition free from attachment.
vita-raga-visayam va cittam
38. Or resting on knowledge [derived] from dream or sleep.
39. Or from meditation as desired.
40. Mastery of it [extends] from the smallest to the greatest.
41. [The accomplished mind] of diminished fluctuations, like a precious (or clear) jewel
assuming the color of any near object, has unity among grasper, grasping, and grasped.
ksina-vrtter abhijatasya-iva maner grahitr-grahana-grahyesu
42. Svatikara unity is the commingling by conceptualization of word, purpose, and knowledge.
tatra sabda-artha-jnana-vikalpaih samkirna savitarka sama pattih
43. Nirvitarka is when memory is purified, as if emptied of its own form, and the object alone shines forth.
smrti-parisuddhau sva rupa-sunya-iva-artha-matra-nirbhasa nirvitarka
44. Similarly explained are sarvicara and nirvicara which are subtle conditions.
etayaiva savicara nirvicara ca suksma-visaya vyakhyata
45. And the subtle condition terminates in the undesignated.
suksma-visayatvam ca aliinga-paryavasanam
46. These are samadhi with seed.
ta eva sabijah samadhi
47. In skill with nirvicara, clarity of authentica self arises.
48. There the wisdom is rtam-bearing (or truth-bearing).
rtam bhara tatra prajna
49. Its condition is different from heard or inferred knowledge because of its distinct purpose.
sruta-anumana-prajnabhyam anya-visaya visesa-arthatvat
50. The samskara born of it obstructs other samskaras.
51. Whith even that restricted, everything is restricted and that is seedless samadhi.
tasya api nirodhe sarva-nirodhan nirbijah samadhih
Chapter 2: Sadhana Pada
1. Austerity, self-study, and dedication to Isvara are kriya yoga.
2. [It is] for the purposes of cultivating samadhi and attenuating the afflictions.
samadhi-bhavana-artha klesa-tanu-karana-arthas ca
3. Ignorance, I-am-ness, attraction, aversion, and desire for continuity are the afflictions.
4. Ignorance is the origin of the others, whether dormant, attenuated, interrupted, or fully
avidya ksetram uttaresam prasupta-tanu-vicchina-udaranam
5. Ignorance is seeing the noneternal as eternal, the impure as pure, dissatisfaction as
pleasure, and nonself as self.
6. I-am-ness is when the two powers of seer and seen [appear]
as a single self.
drg-darsana-saktyor eka atmata iva asmita
7. Attraction is clingling to pleasure.
8. Aversion is clinging to dissatisfaction.
9. Desire for continuity, arising even among the wise, is sustained by self-inclination.
svarasa-vahi viduso’ pi tatha rudho’ bhinivesa
10. These subtle ones are to be avoided by a return to the origin.
te pratiprasava-heya suksmah
11. Their fluctuations are to be voided by meditation.
12. The residue of karma, rooted in affliction, is felt in seen or unseen existence.
klesa-mulah karma-asayo drsta-adrsta-janma-vedaniyah
13. While the root existence, there is fruition of it as birth, duration, and experience.
sati mule tad-vipako jaty-ayur-bhogah
14. These fruits are joyful or painful according to whether the causes are meritorious or
te hlada-paritapa-phala punya-apunya-hetutvat
15. For the discriminating one, all is dissatisfaction due to the conflict of the fluctuations of the gunas and by the dissatisfactions due to parinama, sorrow, and samskaras.
parinam-tapa-samskara-duhkhair guna-vrrti-virodhac ca duhkham eva
16. The dissatisfaction yet to come is to be avoided.
heyam duhkham anagatam
17. The cause of what is to be avoided is the union of seer with the seen.
drastr-drsyayoh samyoga heya-hetuh
18. The seen has the qualities of light, activity, and inertia, consists of the elements and the senses, and has the purposes of experience an liberation.
19. The distinct, the indistinct, the designator, and the unmaifest are the divisions of the
20. The seer only sees; though pure, it appears intentional.
drastr drsi-matraha suddho’pi pratyaya-anupasyah
21. The nature of the seen is only for the purpose of that (purusa).
tad-artha eva drsyaya-atma
22. When [its] purpose is done, it disappears; otherwise it does not disappear due to being
common to others.
krtaa-artham prati nastam apy anastam tad anya-sadharanatva
23. Union (samyoga) is the cause of apprehending as [one] self-form the two powers of owner and owned.
sva-svami-saktyoh sva-rupa-upalabdhi-hetuh samyogah
24. The cause of it is ignorance.
tasya hetur avidya
25. From its absence, samyoga ceases; [this is] the escape, the isolation from the seen.
tad-abhavat samyoga-abhavo hanam tad-drseh kaivalyam
26. The means of escape is unfaltering discriminative discernment.
viveka-khyatir aviplava hanopayah
27. His wisdom to the last stage is sevenfold.
tasya saptadha pranta-bhumih prajna
28. From following the limbs of yoga, on the destruction of impurity there is a light of
knowledge, leading to discriminative discernment.
yoga-anga-anusthanad asuddhi-ksaye jnana-diptir a viveka-kyateh
29. Restraint, observance, postures, control of breath, withdrawal, concentration, meditation, and samadhi are the eight limbs.
30. The restraints are nonviolence, truthfulness, nonstealing, sexual restraint, and
31. When not limited by life-state, place, time, or circumstance in all occasions.
jati-desa-kala-samaya-anavacchinnah sarva-bhauma mahavratam
32. Purity, contentment, austerity, self-study, and dedication to Isvara are the observances.
33. When there is bondage due to discursive thought, the cultivation of the opposite [is
prescribed]. vitarka-badhane pratipaksa-bhavanam
34. Discursive thoughts like violence, etc. , whether done, caused or approved, consisting in lust, anger, or delusion, and whether mild, medium, or intense, have as their endless fruits *** and ignorance; thus, cultivation of opposites [is prescribed].
vitarka himsa-adayah krta-karita-anumodita
duhkha-ajnana-ananta-phala iti pratipaksa-bhavanam
35. When in the presence of one established in nonviolence, there is the abandonment of hostility.
ahimsa-pratistayam tat-samnidhau vira-tyagah
36. When established in truthfulness, [there is] correspondence between action and fruit.
37. When established in nonstealing, [whatever is] present is all jewels.
38. When established in sexual restraint, vigor is obtained.
39. When steadfast in nonpossession, there is knowledge of “the how” of existence.
aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathamta sambodhah
40. From purity arises dislike of one’s own body and noncontact with others.
saucat sva-anga-jugupsa parair asamsargah
41. And purity of sattva, cheerfulness, onepointedness, mastery of the senses, and fitness for the vision of the self.
42. From contentment, unsurpassed happiness is obtained.
samtosad anuttamah sukha-labhah
43. From austerity arises the destruction of impurity and the perfection of the body and the senses.
kaya-indriya-siddhir asuddhi-ksayat tapasah
44. From self-study arises union with the desired diety.
45. Perfection in samadhi [arises] from dedication to Isvara.
46. Asana is steadiness and ease.
47. From relaxation of effort and endless unity.
48. Thus, there is no assault by the pairs of opposites.
49. Being in this, there is control of the breath, which is cutting off of the motion of inbreath and outbreath.
tasmin sati svasa-prasvasayor gati-viccedah pranayamah
50. Its fluctuations are external, internal, and suppressed; it is observed according to time, place, and number, and becomes long and subtle.
baha-abhyantara-stambha-vrttir desa-kala-samkhyabhih paridrsto
51. The fourth is withdrawal from external and internal conditions [of breath].
52. Thus, the covering of light is dissolved.
tath ksiyate prakasa-avaranam
53. And there is fitness of the mind organ for concentrations.
dharanasu ca yogyatamanasah
54. Withdrawal of the senses is the disengagement from conditions as if in imitation of the own-form of the mind.
sva-visaya-asamprayoge cittasya sva-rupa-anukara iva indriyanam
55. Then arises utmost command of the senses.
tath parama vasyata indriyanam
Chapter 3: Vibhuti Pada
1. Concentration of the mind is [its] binding to a place.
desa-bandhas cittasya dharana
2. The extension of one intention there, is meditation.
tatra pratyaya-eka-tanata dhyanam
3. When the purpose alone shines forth as if empty of own form, that indeed is samadhi.
tad eva-artha-matra-nirbhasam svarupa-sunyam iva samadhih
4. The unity of these three is samyama.
trayam ekatra samyamah
5. From the mastery of that, the splendor of wisdom.
tad-jayat prajna alokah
6. Its application is in stages.
tasya bhumisu viniyogah
7. These three inner limbs are (distinct) from the prior ones.
8. These indeed are outer limbs [in regard to] the seedless.
tad api bahir-angam nirbijasya
9. [In regard to] the two samskaras of emergence and restraint, when that of appearance
(emergence) is overpowered, there follows a moment of restraint in the mind; this is the parinama of restraint.
vyutthana-nirodha-samskarayor abhibhava-pradurbhavau nirodha-ksana-citta-anvayo nirodha-parinamah
10. From the samskaraof this there is a calm flow.
tasya prasanta vahita samskarat
11. When there is obstruction of all objectivity and the arising of one-pointedness, there is of the mind the parinama of samadhi.
sarva-arthata-ekagratayoh ksaya-udayau cittasya samadhi-parinamah
12. Hence again, when there is equanimity between arising and quieted intentions, there is the parinama of one-pointedness of the mind.
tatah punah santa-uditau tulya-pratyayau cittasya-ekagrata-parinamah
13. By this are similarly explained the parinamas of state, designation, and dharama amongst the elements and the senses.
etena bhuta-indiyesu dharma-lasana-avastha-parinama vya khyatah
14. The dharma-holder corresponds to the dharma whether quieted, arisen, or undetermined (past, present, or future).
15. The casue of the difference between parinamas is the difference in the succession.
krama-anyatvam parinama-anyatve hetuh
16. From samyama on the threefold parinamas (there is) knowledge of past and future.
17. From the overlapping here and there of words, purposes, and intentions, there is
confusion. From samyama o the distinctions of them, there is knowledge of the (way of) utterance of all beings.
sabda-artha-pratyayanam itara-itara adhyasat samskaras tat
18. From effecting the perception of samskara, there is knowledge of previous births.
samskara-saksat karanat purva-jati-jnanam
19. [Similarly, from perception of another’s] intentions, there is knowledge of another mind.
20. But this is not with support because there is no condition of it in the elements.
na ca tat salambanam tasya avisayi bhutatvat
21. From samyama on the form (rupa) of the body, [there arises] the suspension of the power of what is to be grasped and the disjunction of light and the eye, resulting in concealment.
kaya-rupasamyamat tad grahya-sakti-stambhe caksuh
22. Karma is either in motion or not in motion. From samyama on this, or from naturual
phenomena boding misfortune, there is knowledge of death.
sopakramam nirupakramam ca karman tad samyamat aparanta-jnanam
23. [By samyama] on friendliness and so forth, (corresponding) powers.
maitri adisu balani
24. [By samyama] on powers, the powers like those of the elephant, and so forth.
25. Due to the casting of light on a [sense] activity, there is knowledge of the subtle, concealed, and distant.
26. From samyama on the su, [arises] knowledge of the world.
bhuvana-jnanam surye samyamat
27. On the moon, knowledge of the ordering of the stars.
28. On the polar star, knowledge of there movement.
dhruve tad gati-jnanam
29. On the central cakra, knowledge of the ordering of the body.
30. On the hollow of the throat, cessation of hunger and thirst.
31. On the tortoise nadi, stability.
32. On the light in the head, vision of the perfected ones. murdha-jyotisi
33. Or from intuition, everything.
pratibhad va sarvam
34. On the heart, understanding of the mind.
35. When there is no distinction of intention between the purusa and the perfect sattva, there is experience for the purpose of the other [purusa]; from samyama on purpose being for the self, there is knowledge of purusa.
sattva-purusayor atyanta-asamkirnayoh pratyaya-avisesah bhogah
para-arthatvat svartha-samyamat purusa-jnanam
36. Hence are born intuitive hearing touching, tasting, and smelling.
tatah pratibha-sravana-vedana-adarsa-asvada-vartah jayante tatah
37. These are impediments to samadhi; in emergence (world production), they are perfections.
te samadhau upasargah vyutthane siddhayah
38. From the relaxation of the cause of bondage and from the preception of the manifestation, there is an entering of the mind into another embodiment.
bandha-karana-saithilyat pracara-samvedanat ca cittasya
39. From mastery of the upbreath, there is nonattachment amongst water, mud, and thorns, etc. , and a rising above.
udana-jayat jala-panka-kantaka-adisu asangah ukrantis ca
40. From mastry of the samana, there is radiance.
samana-jayat jvalanam 41. From samyana on the connection between the ear and space, [there arises] the divine ear.
srotva-akasayoh sambandha-samyamad divyam srotram
42. From samyama on the connection between body and space, and from unity with the
lightness of cotton there is movement through space.
kaya-akasayoh sambandha-samyamat laghu-tula-samapatteh ca
43. An outer, genuine fluctuation is the great discarnate; hence the covering of light is
bahir akalita vrttir maha-videha tatah prakasa-avarana-ksayah
44. From samyama on the significance and connection of the subtle and the own-form of the gross, there is mastery over the elements.
45. Hence arises the appearance of minuteness and so forth, perfection of the body, and
unassailability of its dharma.
samadhi-siddhir isvara-pranidhanat 46. Perfection of the body is beauty of form, strength, and adamantine stability.
47. From samyama on grasping, own form, I-am-ness, their connection, and their significance,
ther is mastery over the sense organs.
48. Hence, there is swiftness of the mind organ, a state of being beyond the senses, and mastery over pradhana.
tato mano-javitvam vikarana-bhava pradhana-jayas ca
49. Only from the discernment of the difference between sattva and purusa, there is sovereignty
over all states of being and knowedge of all.
50. From dispassion toward even this, in the destruction of the seed of this impediment, arises kaivalyam.
tad-vairagyad api dosa-bija-ksaye kaivalyam
51. There is no cause for attachment and pride upon the invitation of those well established,
becasue repeated association with the undesirable.
sthany-upanimantrane sanga-smaya-akaranam punar anista-prasangat
52. From samyama on the moment of its succession, there is knowledge born of discrimination.
ksana-tat-kramayoh samyamad viveka-jam jnanam
53. Hence, there is the asertainment of two things that are similar, due to their not being
limited (made separate) by differences of birth, designation, and place.
jati-laksana-desair anyata anavacchedat tulyayoh tatah pratipattih
54. The knowledge born of discrimination is said to be liberating, (inclusive of) all conditions
and all times, and nonsuccessive.
tarkam sarva-visayam sarvatha visayam akramam ca iti
55. In the sameness of purity between the sattva and the purusa there is kaivalyam.
sattva-purusayoh suddhi-sumye kaivalyam iti
Chapter 4: kaivalya pada
1. Perfections are born due to birth, drugs, mantra, austerity, or samadhi.
2. From the flooding of prakrti, arises parinama into other births.
3. Hence, [those things that] make distinct the limitations of these manifestations are the
instrumental cause, not the initiator, as in the case of the farmer (who does not initiate the flow of water but directs it through the use of barriers).
nimittam aprayokakam prakrtinam varana-bhedas tu tatah ksetrikavat
4. The fabricating minds arise only from I-am-ness.
5. The initiator is the only mind among many that is distinct from activity.
pravrtti-bhede prayojakam cittam ekam anekesam
6. There, what is born of meitation is without residue.
tatra dhyana-jam anasayam
7. The action of a yogin is neither black nor white; that of others is threeflold.
karma-asukla-akrsnam yoginas trividham itaresam
8. Hence, the manifestation of habit patterns thus correspond to the fruition of that (karma).
tatas tad-vipaka-anugunanam eva abhivyaktir vasananam
9. Becasue memory and samskaras are of one form, there is a link even among births, places, and times that are concealed.
jati-desa-kala-vyavahitanam apy antantaryam smrti-samskararayor eka rupatvat
10. And there is no beginning of these due to the perpetuity of desire.
tasam anaditvam ca asiso nityatvat
11. Becasue they are held together by causes, results, correspondences, and supports, when these (go into) nonbeing, (there is the) nonbeing of them (samskaras).
hetu-phala-asraya-alambanaih samgrhitatvad esam abhave tad abhavah
12. In there own form, the past and future exists, due to distinctions between paths of
atita-anagatam svarupato asty adhva-bhedad dharmanam
13. These have manifest and subtle guna natures.
te vyakta-suksmah guna-atmanah
14. From the uniformity of its purinama, there is the “thatness” of an object.
15. In the sameness of an object, becasue of its distinctness from the mind, there is a separate path of each.
vasdtu-samye citta-bhedat tayor vibhaktah panthah
16. An object does not depend on one mind; there is no proof of this: how couldit be?.
na ca eka-citta-tantram vastu tad-apramanakam tada kim syat
17. An object of the mind is known or not known due to the anticipation that colors it (the
tad-uparaga-apeksitvac cittasya vastu jnana-ajnatam
18. The fluctuations of the mind are always known due to the changelessness of their master, purusa.
sada jnanatas citta-vrttayas tat-prabhoh purusasya aparinamitvat
19. There is no self-luminosity of that (citta-vrtti) becasue of the nature of the seen.
na tat-svabhasam drsyatvat
20. In one circumstance, there is no discernment of both (vrtti and purusa together).
eka-samaye ca ubhaya-anavadharanam
21. In trying to see another highr mind there is an overstretching of the intellect from the
intellect and a confusion of memory.
citta-anataradrsye buddhi-buddher atiprasangah smrti-samskaras ca
22. Due to the nonmixing of higher awareness, entering into that form is [in fact] the
perception of one’s own intellect.
citer apratisamkramayas tad-akara-apattau svabuddhi-samvedanam
23. All purposes [are known due to] the mind being tinted with seer and seen.
drastr-drsya-aparaktam cittam sarva-artham
24. From action having been done conjoinly for the purpose of another, it is speckled with innumerable habit patterns.
tad-asamkhyeya-vasanabhis-citram api para-artham samhatya karitvat
25. The one who sees the distinction discontinues the cultivation of self-becoming.
26. Then, inclined toward discrimination, the mind has a propensity for kaivalyam.
tada viveka-mainam kaivalya-pragbharam cittam
27. In the intervening spaces of that, there are other intentions, due to samskaras.
tac-chidresu pratyaya-antarani samskarebhyah
28. The cessation of them is said to be like that of the afflictions.
hanam esam klesavad uktam
29. Inndeed, in [that state] reflection, for the one who has discriminative discernment and
always takes no interest, there is the cloud of dharama samadhi.
prasamkhyane’pi akusidasya sarvatha viveka-khyater dharma-megah
30. From that, there is cessation of afflicted action.
31. Then, little is to be known due to the eternality of knowledge which is free from all impure covering.
tada sarva-avaranam-mala-apetasya jnanasya anantyaj jneyam alpam
32. From that, the purpose of the gunas is done and that succession of parinama is concluded.
tatah krta-arthanam parinama-krama-samaptir gunanam
33. Succession and its correlate, the moment, are terminated by the end of parinama.
ksana-pratiyogi parinama-aparanta-nigrahyah kramah
34. The return to the origin of the gunas, emptied of their purpose for purusa is kaivalyam, the
steadfastness in own form, and the power of higher awareness.
purusa-artha-sunyanam gunanam pratiprasavah kaivalyam
svarupa-pratistha va citi-saktir iti