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Remembering Gopal Mukherjee, The Braveheart Who Saved Calcutta In 1946

 

Jaideep Mazumdar

– Aug 19, 2017, 7:10 pm

 

 

SNAPSHOT

 

During the massacre of Hindu men and women in Calcutta in 1946, one man mobilized the Hindu resistance and brought a halt to the horrific proceedings.

If Bengali Hindus are living in Kolkata today, and if (West) Bengal exists today, they have Gopal Mukhopadhyay (and other stalwarts) to thank for.

18 August ought to be a red-letter day for Kolkata in particular, and Bengal in general. But few remember this day, which marked a turning point in the gory events that overtook the city from 16 August 1946. And it was the dramatic turn of events from 18 August that year that saved the city and Bengal from becoming part of Pakistan.

Very few remember Gopal Chandra Mukhopadhyay, the brave heart who turned the tide against the Muslim League, saving tens of thousands of Hindus from certain annihilation and thus defeating the League’s diabolic pogrom against Hindus. Had it not been for him and his courageous and patriotic band of followers, Calcutta and its neighboring Hindu-majority districts would have been drained of Hindus and made part of East Pakistan.

The Prelude

As is well known, the then Muslim League chief minister of Bengal, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, organized a pogrom against the Hindus of Calcutta from 16 August 1946 – the Muslim League’s Direct Action Day (read all about the ‘butcher of Bengal’ and his dark deeds here). The pogrom against Hindus by the Muslim League was pre-planned. Jinnah gave enough indication of his evil intentions – he said he would have “India divided or India burned”, that the League had bidden “goodbye to Constitutional methods” and would “create trouble”.

The day – 16 August – was also chosen with care and to provoke Islamist sentiments. It was the eighteenth day of Ramzan, when prophet Muhammad fought and won the Battle of Badr, the first decisive victory over the heathens that paved the way for the bloody conquest of Mecca. Posters of Jinnah posing with a sword were distributed in Calcutta while the Muslim League Mouthpiece The Star of India and other Muslim publications reminded the community about the significance of the day and urged them to follow in the footsteps of the prophet to kill the heathens (Hindus) and make Bengal the “land of the pure” (Pakistan). Syed Muhammad Usman, then mayor of Calcutta, issued a widely circulated leaflet that said: Kafer! Toder dhongsher aar deri nei! Sarbik hotyakando ghotbei! (Infidels! Your end is not far away! You will be massacred!)

Muslim League leaders instructed clerics in mosques to give fiery speeches after the jumma namaz (16 August was a Friday as well). The clerics obeyed and reminded their congregations that the day was a significant one and exhorted them to cleanse Bengal of kafirs or infidels. But even before the Friday prayers, Muslims started attacking Hindu shops and business establishments that had remained open in defiance of the Muslim League’s call for a hartal (strike). After the prayers, tens of thousands of agitated Muslims streamed to the Ochterlony monument (the Shahid Minar now) to hear Suhrawardy and other Muslim League leaders. The leaders issued fiery speeches urging the Muslims to attack Hindus and drive them away from Calcutta so that Jinnah’s dream of making Bengal a part of Pakistan could come true. Suhrawardy, in his speech, assured the Muslims that he had ensured that the police and army would be “restrained”. This was construed as a direct encouragement to Muslims to attack and kill Hindus.

The Killing of Hindus

And this is exactly what happened. Tens of thousands of agitated Muslims, baying for the blood of Hindus, streamed out of the rally and spread to different parts of the city armed with iron rods, swords and lethal weapons. A shop selling arms and ammunition belonging to a Hindu at Esplanade (just near the venue of the Muslim League rally) was the first to be attacked. The owner and his employees were decapitated. What followed was a one-sided orgy of violence in which thousands of Hindu homes and shops were attacked, Hindu men and boys brutally massacred (decapitation and amputation of limbs were the preferred forms of brutality) while Hindu women were disrobed, raped and killed. Many were taken away as sex slaves.

One of the worst massacres took place at Kesoram Cotton Mills at Lichubagan in the Muslim-dominated Metiabruz area, where a Muslim League leader, Syed Abdullah Farooqi, led a Muslim mob inside the compound of the mill where about 600 Hindu labourers, mostly Odias, were staying. They were all beheaded; just two survivors lived to tell the tale of Muslim brutality. Both had their arms hacked off and had been given up for dead, but they survived.

The Hindus, as Suhrawardy had rightly predicted, did not put up any resistance in the first two days. He had told his colleagues that Hindus had been numbed into submission by centuries of Muslim rule and just did not possess the courage to stand up to Muslims, even though Muslims were in a minority in the country. It must be remembered that Calcutta had 64 per cent Hindus and 33 per cent Muslims in 1946, and only a few districts neighboring Calcutta like Howrah and Hooghly were Hindu-majority. Suhrawardy told his Muslim League colleagues that after centuries of being dominated by Muslims, Hindus did not “have it in their genes to resist Muslims” and that “Hindus were of the firm belief that they (Hindus) were weak and Muslims were strong and ferocious”.

Suhrawardy stationed himself in the control room of the Calcutta Police headquarters at Lalbazar, from where he restrained the British and Anglo-Indian police officers from deploying forces to areas where Muslims were attacking Hindus successfully. Earlier, Suhrawardy had changed the composition of the city police’s constabulary by inducting a large number of Pathans and Muslims from United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) into the force to replace Bihari Hindus. These Muslim constables also aided the Muslim League criminals in killing Hindu men and raping and butchering Hindu women.

The killings took place in Hindu-majority areas of the city, and in the first two days – 16, 17 August – a few thousand Hindus were killed. Estimates vary between 4,000 and 20,000; about 3,500 bodies of Hindus were cremated, but British and Indian contemporary historians have written that many times that number were stuffed into underground sewers or simply dumped in the Ganges and the various canals that crisscrossed the city. A conservative estimate would put the number of Hindus killed or missing at over 7,000.

Exodus of Hindus

Hindus started fleeing Calcutta. Howrah station was a mass of humanity with Hindus desperate to board trains bound for other parts of the country. Hundreds of Hindu families, desperate to cross the Hooghly in country boats, were drowned when Muslims manning barges rammed their vessels into the country boats. This was exactly what Suhrawardy had planned: kill Hindus and create such a fear psychosis that Hindus would flee Calcutta, and the city would then become Muslim-majority. A Muslim-majority Calcutta would then bolster the Muslim League’s demand for its inclusion in Pakistan.

Suhrawardy had planned that after driving Hindus out of Calcutta, he would turn his attention to Hindu-majority districts of Howrah and Hooghly as well as the 24 Parganas that were industrialized and driving the economy of Bengal. Without these districts, he realized, East Pakistan would not be economically well off. So it was imperative to drive Hindus away from these districts or beat them into submission so that they would not oppose the League’s demand for the inclusion of the districts in Pakistan.

Enter Gopal Mukhopadhyay

It was at this crucial juncture, when Suhrawardy’s and the Muslim League’s diabolical plan of killing Hindus and reducing them to a hopeless minority in Calcutta and neighboring districts was coming to fruition, that Gopal Chandra Mukhopadhyay emerged on the scene. Gopal, then 33, belonged to a family of nationalists. He was an ardent supporter of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and used to abhor Gandhian non-violence. He was a nephew of Anukul Chandra Mukhopadhyay, a nationalist thinker and professor of philosophy at Allahabad University who was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1964.

Gopal used to run his family mutton shop and, hence, was popularly known as Gopal ‘patha’ (‘patha’ means male goats in Bengali). Many researchers have said he used to interact closely with Muslim traders and rearers of goats, and bore not an iota of ill will towards Muslims. From his early days, Gopal was a philanthropist, helping families and people in distress. Gopal had already raised the Bharat Jatiya Bahini, a nationalist organization comprising young men, to help people in distress and carry out relief works during calamities. Many members of the Bahini were wrestlers.

On the night of 17 August, when distressing reports of large-scale massacre of Hindus and rape of Hindu women started reaching Gopal, he called out to Hindu youths and members of his Bharat Jatiya Bahini to resist the attacks by Muslims. Throughout the night, Gopal and his associates chalked out detailed action plans to stop Muslim attacks on Hindus. Hearing of the self-defense strategy being chalked out by Gopal, many non-Bengali Hindu men offered to help. Marwari traders of Burrabazar, who had also borne the brunt of Muslim attacks, offered financial help. Hindu blacksmiths made thousands of swords, spears, choppers, cleavers and other weapons in their workshops overnight.

The Hindu Fightback

By early morning of 18 August, small armies of Hindu youths were ready in Hindu localities to take on Muslim attackers. Suhrawardy and his Muslim League colleagues knew nothing of this build-up of Hindu resistance and started directing League criminals to Hindu areas from that morning again. Suhrawardy told his Muslim League colleagues and workers that they had two more days to cleanse Calcutta of Hindus as pressure was building up due to news of the killings reaching Delhi. Suhrawardy apprehended intervention by the viceroy, and hence his priority was to step up the killings of Hindus in Calcutta on 18 August and then turn his criminals loose in the three neighboring districts over the next two days to complete his evil plan.

But the Islamist goons and criminals received a nasty shock on 18 August morning. “They faced resistance everywhere. Hindu youths counter-attacked with such ferocity that the Muslim League men had to flee. Many were killed. Emboldened by their success in taking on and defeating their Islamist attackers, Hindu youths took the fight to Muslim-majority areas and started killing Islamist men. They did not, however, touch Muslim women and children or the aged and the infirm,” writes historian Sandip Bandopadhyay, who researched Gopal Mukhopadhyay extensively. “Gopal was never communal. He simply organized self-defense of Hindus by organizing Hindu youths to fight back Islamist aggression. He gave shelter to the homeless and widows and stopped them from getting killed or converted,” writes Bandopadhyay.

Over the next three days – 18-20 August – Muslim League goons were paid back in their own coin. All Muslim League goons who had led mobs in attacking Hindus and those who had participated in the pogrom against Hindus were identified, hunted down and killed. Panic spread among Muslims, who felt they were no longer safe in Calcutta. From 19 August, the tide had turned and Islamist men and youth who had killed Hindus were at the receiving end. Suhrawardy and his men, as well as the biased and anti-Hindu Calcutta Police officers and constabulary, could do nothing to stop Hindu resistance.

The Hindu fightback was led by Gopal Mukhopadhyay and some men like Basanta, a famous wrestler of Beadon Street (near Gopal’s residence in Bowbazar), but it was the Dalits and non-Bengali Hindus from Bihar and United Provinces who provided the muscle. Financed by Marwari traders, they fought back valiantly and succeeded in reversing the tide in favor of Hindus. By counter-attacking Islamists, they not only shattered the illusion among Islamists that Hindus were meek but also drove fear into the hearts of the Islamists who were confident of annihilating the Hindus.

Setback to Suhrawardy

Suhrawardy, who had thought Hindus were cowards and would submit meekly to Islamist attacks and subsequent domination, received a deep shock. He was shattered and, according to a British police officer, was seen in Lalbazar in the evening of 19 August in a state of utter shock, his head in his hands and muttering he could never imagine the Hindus would fight back and kill Muslims.

Suhrawardy’s sinister plan to kills Hindus in Calcutta and the neighboring districts in order to create panic among the Hindus and trigger an exodus from these areas, thus converting them into Muslim-majority areas that would be ripe for inclusion in East Pakistan, received a huge setback. Suhrawardy was a defeated man, thanks mainly to Gopal Mukhopadhyay. His plan lay in tatters. By 21 August, when viceroy’s rule was imposed in Bengal, Suhrawardy was dismissed, and the British and Gurkha army troops spread out all over Calcutta to put an end to the killings, more Muslims than Hindus had been killed.

Suhrawardy, in order to save his chair and put an end to the violence, deputed G G Ajmeri and Mujibur Rahman (later the creator of Bangladesh) who were musclemen and members of the Muslim League students’ wing and the Muslim National Guard, to seek truce with Gopal Mukhopadhyay. They went to Mukhopadhyay and pleaded for an end to the killings. Mukhopadhyay agreed on the condition that the Muslim League would disarm its killing squads and stop attacks on Hindus first. Suhrawardy complied.

Historians say Suhrawardy was not only driven to the wall by Hindu resistance and the consequent failure of his diabolical plans, he also sensed that the British viceroy Lord Archibald Wavell was at the edge of his patience and could dismiss Suhrawardy’s Muslim league government in Bengal. That would have been more disastrous for Suhrawardy and he would have lost all power on the eve of independence of India. He panicked and in order to save his chair, suggested truce with the Hindus. But it would prove to be too late; Lord Wavell dismissed the Muslim League government in Bengal on 21 August.

If Not for Gopal Mukhopadhyay…

It would be relevant here to examine what course history would have taken had Gopal Mukhopadhyay not organized a resistance by the Hindus from 18 August 1946. Calcutta’s population at the time was about 20 lakh. Of them, there were 12.8 lakh Hindus and 6.6 lakh Muslims. Of the 12.8 lakh Hindus, about 30 per cent (or about 3.84 lakh) were non-Bengalis whose voices and opinions would not have mattered had a referendum been held on the inclusion of Calcutta in East Pakistan since they would have been considered migrants from other provinces.

By 17 August night, an estimated 7,000 Hindus had been massacred by the Islamists and that had triggered a massive exodus of Hindus, mainly Bengali Hindus, from Kolkata. Had the killings continued for two more days, more Hindus would have died and the city’s Hindu population – the killings and exodus combined – would have come down to an estimated 7.8 lakh.

Researchers who have studied genocide and ethnic killings and subsequent exodus of the targeted community say that the killing of every 100 people triggers an exodus of at least 4,000 people. Thus, the killings of 12,000 Hindus (7,000 already killed and at least another 5,000 who would have been killed had the pogrom continued for another two days) would have triggered the exodus of nearly five lakh Hindus from Calcutta. That would have brought the population of Hindus in Calcutta down to about 7.8 lakh, a little higher than the existing Muslim population.

Suhrawardy and his Muslim League colleagues had also planned to bring in Muslims from Calcutta’s hinterlands to take over properties left by Hindus who had fled or were killed. He had plans to bring in at least four lakh Muslims from the Muslim-majority and densely populated eastern part of Bengal to settle in Calcutta in the neighboring industrial and economically advanced districts. Thus, the plan was to make Calcutta and its rich and industrially (as well as economically) advanced neighboring districts into Muslim-majority areas. That would have strengthened the Muslim League’s claim for inclusion of Calcutta and these districts in East Pakistan.

Gopal Mukhopadhyay Averted Disaster for Hindus

Had Suhrawardy’s game plan succeeded, it would have been disastrous for Bengali Hindus. Had Calcutta and its neighboring districts gone to East Pakistan, lakhs of Bengali Hindus would have been rendered homeless. And Hindus, as experience has shown, would not have been safe in Muslim-majority East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

Statistics prove this contention. Bengali Hindus have never been safe and have always faced discrimination, killings, rapes, forcible conversions and forced displacements in Muslim-majority East Bengal that went on to become East Pakistan and then Bangladesh. In 1901, Hindus formed 33 per cent of the population of the eastern part of Bengal. They dwindled to 31.5 per cent in 1911, 30.6 per cent in 1921, 29.4 per cent in 1931 and 28 per cent in 1941.

After 1947, the decline in the Hindu population in East Pakistan was sharp. Hindus got reduced to 22.05 per cent of the population of East Pakistan in 1951, to 18.5 per cent in 1961, 13.5 per cent in 1974 (after the creation of Bangladesh), 12.13 per cent in 1981, 10.51 per cent in 1991, 9.2 per cent in 2001 and 8.96 per cent in 2011. By 2031, Hindus will form barely 5 per cent of the population of Bangladesh.

This proves that Bengali Hindus would never have been safe in Muslim-majority East Pakistan that would have included Calcutta, Howrah, 24 Parganas and Hooghly had Suhrawardy’s pogrom against Hindus succeeded and had Gopal Mukhopadhyay not valiantly organized and fought back the murderous Islamist mobs inspired and led by Suhrawardy.

Will History Repeat Itself?

Bengali Hindus would, thus, have been without a homeland today if Suhrawardy had succeeded. If Bengali Hindus are living in Kolkata today, and if (West) Bengal exists today, they have Gopal Mukhopadhyay (and other stalwarts, primary among them being Dr Syama Prasad Mookerjee) to thank for. Had it not been for them, Calcutta and major parts of present-day Bengal would have been part of East Pakistan and then Bangladesh, where Hindus are a persecuted lot living like miserable second-class citizens in penury and despair. Unfortunately, Bengali Hindus have forgotten their heroes to whom they owe their existence. They have forgotten their history. And that is why Bengal today faces the danger of Islamist forces trying to wrest political control of the state. Those who cannot remember the past, as nineteenth-century Spanish philosopher George Santayana had famously said, are bound to repeat it.

The only redeeming feature here is the brave efforts by Hindu Samhati over the past few years to resurrect the memory and contribution of Gopal Mukhopadhyay. For the past several years, Hindu Samhati has been organizing a rally on 16 August to commemorate Gopal Mukhopadhyay’s life and his efforts in saving the Hindus of Bengal and this city from becoming part of Pakistan. Encouragingly, a growing number of people, especially young men and women, have been participating in the rally. This year, an estimated 10,000 young men and women took part in the rally in Kolkata. Some Hindus, at least, are remembering history and drawing lessons from it.

Also Read: A Date Bengal Should Not Have Forgotten

 

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From: Pramod Agrawal < >.

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From Rajput < >

 

ENQUIRY ON DESERTIONS, AND PARTITION

 

“Don’t beat the dead snake!”, said my learned Hindu friend with his back towards the enemy.

He meant “Don’t harp on Partition. Forget it, and those who were killed are no more worth a fig!”

 

Yes, it is agonizing for most to confront a situation that is beyond our might to correct, or improve. Frustration mounts and finally one says, “Leave me alone. Delete my name from your list!”

 

But the more names we delete the worse gets the situation. The distant fires are approaching our house, too, however secular, celebrated or sophisticated we may be!

 

Recall the fate of such “superior bodies”, doctors, professors, millionaires and Excellencies, even “sants, sadhus and mahatmas” in Rawalpindi and Noakhali! ALAS, those who were meant to remind us are all “jackals and rats “with total memory loss! To most Akhand Bharat is already like a “dead snake”!

History’s countless Tsunamis have decapitated the Hindus and taken away the collective Head to deep depths. With that, “sank” the bonding, the unity, the collective response & responsibility- and the instinct of retaliation!

 

Hindus have to recreate that absent HEAD, stand united against threats to our existence. The threat to Hindus, collectively and individually, mounts in direct proportion to the number of desertions from the ranks!

 

If this situation is acceptable then we can foresee the fate of Delhi like that of Lahore and Karachi. But if this situation is unacceptable, that is, if we think we cannot surrender any more souls and LAND to our enemies, then what to do?

 

The question is relevant since while the Hindus are not interested in anybody’s religion, it is the missionaries and the maulvis who feel upset and provoked on seeing a Hindu. He/she is perceived a challenge to all what they stand, and trained, for!

 

Competition among the mullahs and missionaries is intense for the minds and souls of the confused & vulnerable Hindus.

 

In this respect we can compare two countries, Afghanistan and Bharat. In the former one needs a magnifying glass to spot a missionary or mahatma while in the latter they are growing and spreading like the mushrooms.

 

Finally, our enemies (a lot more than our friends!) have seen that the Hindus show NO interest in recovering the TERRITORY captured from them nor wish to recover the abducted and converted sisters and brothers who have gone over to the enemy side.

 

This apathy, neutrality and secularism boosts their zeal and enthusiasm to convert even more Hindus and capture even more territory of the Hindus (Bharat).

All this is worth thinking about if we wish to save the present borders, however ludicrous & ridiculous they are!

One more thought for all: If a lorry falls down the ravine in Himachal Pradesh, (notorious for bad roads!), a Court of Enquiry is immediately appointed to look into the circumstances, and to make recommendations on how to avoid similar mishaps in the future.

 

Surely Lahore and Dhaka were more than a lorry falling down the “khud” (ravine)! Yet NO court of enquiry has ever been convened as to how it (Partition) happened and HOW SUCH DISASTERS CAN BE PREVENTED IN THE FUTURE!

 

Even the cleverest Hindus seem to believe that BY SHUTTING THE EYES THE CAT DISAPPEARS!

 

Reason? Mental paralysis of the Hindu nation. When given the choice, “Gandhi or Bharat?”, and “Nehru or Hindus”? most Hindus will jump up with alacrity untypical of them, and say, “Gandhi and Nehru above all. Dump Hindusthan and the Hindus!”. (i.e., “Don’t beat the dead snakes!”)

 

Hence NO “post mortem” of Partition! Hence for the entire Hindu nation the invisible Damocles Sword still hangs overhead! (https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/sword_of_Damocles)

 

Government of West Bengal must hold an enquiry as to why Chittagong & Gilgit, Buddhist majority districts, were surrendered like the sheep to the wolves. And the Government of EAST Punjab must hold an enquiry as to why Lahore and Sri Nankana Sahib were surrendered to the intolerant followers of “Mohammed of Mecca”. And the Government of INDIA must order an enquiry as to why Pandit Nehru ordered “CEASE FIRE” when our own troops were advancing!

 

Rajput

13 Aug 17

 

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R Sing < >

Story of ISLAMIC SEPARATISM that ended in PARTITION

 

Thank you for the brave response.

Your extremely moving description of the scene at Amritsar railway station on August 15, 1947, will become an eternal page in the history of Hindusthan.

 

We, who were betrayed along with our sacred and divine Mother India, will NEVER LET THE RULING “RATS & JACKALS” BURY THE DEAD & DETAILS OF THE HIGH TREASON THAT IS CALLED “PARTITION OF INDIA!”

 

rajput

14 June 17

 

From: Mohan Alok < >

 

Dear Sir,

Your following statement does not surprise me.

“I could never understand as to how our own Jawaharlal NEHRU (“priya neta”) could “congratulate” the first Governor General of Pakistan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah, over the dead bodies of two million massacred Hindus and Sikhs, by officially recognizing the bogus new borders drawn right through the States of Bengal and Punjab” as people of the remaining un partitioned regions of India always considered these leaders as their role models and had no sympathy for our communities.

 

Rather they made these leaders as their role models like Fathers Uncles and so on .

Sir One of the survivor of 1947 partition had told me that consequent to cold blooded massacres of Hindus dead bodies of millions of Hindus were thrown into rivers especially “Ravi River”.

 

Nehru and Jinnah went ahead with   the unjustified river water agreement with Pakistan so as to maintain river flow so that the dead bodies of Hindus are carried to sea and no evidence is left against the perpetrators of crime.

(Else there was no reason to deprive Punjab from it rightful share of 50 percent water)

I shall also like to share another post received by me just now

 

😢पहली ट्रेन पाकिस्तान से (15.8.1947) 😢

 

अमृतसर का लाल इंटो वाला रेलवे स्टेशन अच्छा खासा शरणार्थियों कैम्प बना हुआ था!पंजाब के पाकिस्तानी हिस्से से भागकर आये हुए हज़ारों हिन्दुओ-सिखों को यहाँ से दूसरे ठिकानों पर भेजा जाता था ! वे धर्मशालाओं में, टिकट की खिड़की के पास, प्लेट फार्मों पर भीड़ लगाये अपने खोये हुए मित्रों और रिश्तेदारों को हर आने वाली गाड़ी मै खोजते थे…15 अगस्त 1947 को तीसरे पहर के बाद स्टेशन मास्टर छैनी सिंह अपनी नीली टोपी और हाथ में सधी हुई लाल झंडी का सारा रौब दिखाते हुए पागलों की तरह रोती-बिलखती भीड़ को चीरकर आगे बढे…थोड़ी ही देर में 10 डाउन, पंजाब मेल के पहुँचने पर जो द्रश्य सामने आने वाला था, उसके लिये वे पूरी तरह तैयार थे….मर्द और औरतें थर्ड क्लास के धूल से भरे पीले रंग के डिब्बों की और झपट पडेंगे और बौखलाए हुए उस भीड़ में किसी ऐसे बच्चे को खोजेंगे, जिसे भागने की जल्दी में पीछे छोड़ आये थे ! चिल्ला चिल्ला कर लोगों के नाम पुकारेंगे और व्यथा और उन्माद से विहल होकर भीड़ में एक दूसरे को ढकेलकर-रौंदकर आगे बढ़ जाने का प्रयास करेंगे ! आँखो में आँसू भरे हुए एक डिब्बे से दूसरे डिब्बे तक भाग भाग कर अपने किसी खोये हुए रिश्तेदार का नाम पुकारेंगे! अपने गाँव के किसी आदमी को खोजेंगे कि शायद कोई समाचार लाया हो ! आवश्यक सामग्री के ढेर पर बैठा कोई माँ बाप से बिछडा हुआ कोई बच्चा रो रह होगा, इस भगदड़ के दौरान पैदा होने वाले किसी बच्चे को उसकी माँ इस भीड़-भाड़ के बीच अपना ढूध पिलाने की कोशिश कर रही होगी….

स्टेशन मास्टर ने प्लेट फार्म एक सिरे पर खड़े होकर लाल झंडी दिखा ट्रेन रुकवाई ….जैसे ही वह फौलादी दैत्याकार गाड़ी रुकी, छैनी सिंह ने एक विचित्र द्रश्य देखा..चार हथियार बंद सिपाही, उदास चेहरे वाले इंजन ड्राइवर के पास अपनी बंदूकें सम्भाले खड़े थे !! जब भाप की सीटी और ब्रेको के रगड़ने की कर्कश आवाज बंद हुई तो स्टेशन मास्टर को लगा की कोई बहुत बड़ी गड़बड़ है…प्लेट फार्म पर खचाखच भरी भीड़ को मानो साँप सुंघ गया हो..उनकी आँखो के सामने जो द्रश्य था उसे देखकर वह सन्नाटे में आ गये थे !

स्टेशन मास्टर छेनी सिंह आठ डिब्बों की लाहौर से आई उस गाड़ी को आँखे फाड़े घूर रहे थे! हर डिब्बे की सारी खिड़कियां खुली हुई थी, लेकिन उनमें से किसी के पास कोई चेहरा झाँकता हुआ दिखाई नहीँ दे रहा था, एक भी दरवाजा नहीँ खुला.. एक भी आदमी नीचे नहीँ उतरा,उस गाड़ी में इंसान नहीँ #भूत आये थे..स्टेशन मास्टर ने आगे बढ़कर एक झटके के साथ पहले डिब्बे के द्वार खोला और अंदर गये..एक सेकिंड में उनकी समझ में आ गया कि उस रात न.10 डाउन पंजाब मेल से एक भी शरणार्थी क्यों नही उतरा था..वह भूतों की नहीँ बल्कि #लाशों की गाड़ी थी..उनके सामने डिब्बे के फर्श पर इंसानी कटे-फटे जिस्मों का ढेर लगा हुआ था..किसी का गला कटा हुआ था.किसी की खोपडी चकनाचूर थी ! किसी की आते बाहर निकल आई थी…डिब्बों के आने जाने वाले रास्ते मे कटे हुए हाथ-टांगे और धड़ इधर उधर बिखरे पड़े थे..इंसानों के उस भयानक ढेर के बीच से छैनी सिंह को अचानक किसी की घुटी.घुटी आवाज सुनाई दी ! यह सोचकर की उनमें से शायद कोई जिन्दा बच गया हो उन्होने जोर से आवाज़ लगाई..”अमृतसर आ गया है यहाँ सब हिंदू और सिख है.पुलिस मौजूद है, डरो नहीँ”..उनके ये शब्द सुनकर कुछ मुरदे हिलने डुलने लगे..इसके बाद छैनी सिंह ने जो द्रश्य देखा वह उनके दिमाग पर एक भयानक स्वप्न की तरह हमेशा के लिये अंकित हो गया …एक स्त्री ने अपने पास पड़ा हुआ अपने पति का ‘कटा सर’ उठाया और उसे अपने सीने से दबोच कर चीखें मारकर रोने लगी…उन्होंने बच्चों को अपनी मरी हुई माओ के सीने से चिपट्कर रोते बिलखते देखा..कोई मर्द लाशों के ढेर में से किसी बच्चे की लाश निकालकर उसे फटी फटी आँखों से देख रहा था..जब प्लेट फार्म पर जमा भीड़ को आभास हुआ कि हुआ क्या है तो उन्माद की लहर दौड़ गयी…स्टेशन मास्टर का सारा शरीर सुन्न पड़ गया था वह लाशों की कतारो के बीच गुजर रहा था…हर डिब्बे में यही द्रश्य था अंतिम डिब्बे तक पहुँचते पहुँचते उसे मतली होने लगी और जब वह ट्रेन से उतरा तो उसका सर चकरा रहा था उनकी नाक में मौत की बदबू बसी हुई थी और वह सोच रहे थे की रब ने यह सब कुछ होने कैसे दिया ? मुस्लिम कौम इतनी निर्दयी हो सकती है कोई सोच भी नहीँ सकता था….उन्होने पीछे मुड़कर एक बार फ़िर ट्रेन पर नज़र डाली…हत्यारों ने अपना परिचय देने के लिये अंतिम डिब्बे पर मोटे मोटे सफेद अक्षरों से लिखा था…..”यह पटेल और नेहरू को हमारी ओर से आज़ादी का नज़राना है ” !

 

तो यह है वह ‘गज़वा ए हिन्द’ का सच जो कांग्रेसियों व सेकुलर गिरोह ने हिन्दुओ के सामने कभी आने नही दिया..अब होश में आओ हिन्दुओं !! वरना हम व हमारा हिंदुस्तान एक दिन इतिहास में सिमट कर रहा जायेगा !!

हिंदू-सिख लाशों से भरी यह अकेली और आखिरी गाडी नहीं थी !!😢😢

(आंसू और खून)

I WISH OUR GOVERNMENT WAKES UP AND INVESTIGATE ALL INJUSTICES DONE TO OUR PREVIOUS GENERATIONS BY NEHRU AND PARTY (CONGRESS)

Best regards

AM

 

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From: Pramod Agrawal < >

 

Maharaja Hari Singh’s Letter to Mountbatten

Text Of Letter Dated October 26, 1947 From Hari Singh, The Maharaja Of Jammu & Kashmir to Lord Mountbatten, Governor General of India.

Dated: 26 October 1947

My dear Lord Mountbatten,

I have to inform your Excellency that a grave emergency has arisen in my State and request immediate assistance of your Government.

As your Excellency is aware the State of Jammu and Kashmir has not acceded to the Dominion of India or to Pakistan. Geographically my State is contiguous to both the Dominions. It has vital economic and cultural links with both of them. Besides my State has a common boundary with the Soviet Republic and China. In their external relations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan cannot ignore this fact.

I wanted to take time to decide to which Dominion I should accede, or whether it is not in the best interests of both the Dominions and my State to stand independent, of course with friendly and cordial relations with both.

I accordingly approached the Dominions of India and Pakistan to enter into Standstill Agreement with my State. The Pakistan Government accepted this Agreement. The Dominion of India desired further discussions with representatives of my Government. I could not arrange this in view of the developments indicated below. In fact, the Pakistan Government are operating Post and Telegraph system inside the State.

Though we have got a Standstill Agreement with the Pakistan Government that Government permitted steady and increasing strangulation of supplies like food, salt and petrol to my State.

Afridis, solidiers in plain clothes, and desperadoes with modern weapons have been allowed to infilter into the State at first in Poonch and then in Sialkot and finally in mass area adjoining Hazara District on the Ramkot side. The result has been that the limited number of troops at the disposal of the State had to be dispersed and thus had to face the enemy at the several points simultaneously, that it has become difficult to stop the wanton destruction of life and property and looting. The Mahora powerhouse which supplies the electric current to the whole of Srinagar has been burnt. The number of women who have been kidnapped and raped makes my heart bleed. The wild forces thus let loose on the State are marching on with the aim of capturing Srinagar, the summer Capital of my Government, as first step to over-running the whole State.

The mass infiltration of tribesmen drawn from distant areas of the North-West Frontier coming regularly in motor trucks using Mansehra-Muzaffarabad Road and fully armed with up-to-date weapons cannot possibly be done without the knowledge of the Provisional Government of the North-West Frontier Province and the Government of Pakistan. In spite of repeated requests made by my Government no attempt has been made to check these raiders or stop them from coming into my State. The Pakistan Radio even put out a story that a Provisional Government had been set up in Kashmir. The people of my State both the Muslims and non-Muslims generally have taken no part at all.

With the conditions obtaining at present in my State and the great emergency of the situation as it exists, I have no option but to ask for help from the Indian Dominion. Naturally they cannot send the help asked for by me without my State acceding to the Dominion of India. I have accordingly decided to do so and I attach the Instrument of Accession for acceptance by your Government. The other alternative is to leave my State and my people to free-booters (looters?). On this basis, no civilized Government can exist or be maintained. This alternative I will never allow to happen as long as I am Ruler of the State and I have life to defend my country.

I am also to inform your Excellency’s Government that it is my intention at once to set up an interim Government and ask Sheikh Abdullah to carry the responsibilities in this emergency with my Prime Minister.

If my State has to be saved, immediate assistance must be available at Srinagar. Mr. Menon is fully aware of the situation and he will explain to you, if further explanation is needed.

In haste and with kind regards,

 

The Palace, Jammu                                 Your sincerely,

26th October, 1947                                   Hari Singh

 

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From: Pramod Agrawal < >

Supreme Court से अनुमति मिलने पर प्रकाशित की गयी है….
60 साल तक भारत में प्रतिबंधित रहा नाथूराम का अंतिम भाषण –
*“मैंने गांधी को क्यों मारा”*


👉 30 जनवरी 1948 को नाथूराम गोड़से ने महात्मा गांधी की गोली मारकर हत्या कर दी थी लेकिन नाथूराम गोड़से घटना स्थल से फरार नही हुआ बल्कि उसने आत्मसमर्पण कर दिया l
नाथूराम गोड़से समेत 17 अभियुक्तों पर गांधी जी की हत्या का मुकदमा चलाया गया l इस मुकदमे की सुनवाई के दरम्यान न्यायमूर्ति खोसला से नाथूराम ने अपना वक्तव्य स्वयं पढ़ कर जनता को सुनाने की अनुमति माँगी थी जिसे न्यायमूर्ति ने स्वीकार कर लिया था पर यह Court परिसर तक ही सिमित रह गयी क्योकि सरकार ने नाथूराम के इस वक्तव्य पर प्रतिबन्ध लगा दिया था लेकिन नाथूराम के छोटे भाई और गांधी जी की हत्या के सह-अभियोगी गोपाल गोड़से ने 60 साल की लम्बी कानूनी लड़ाई लड़ने के बाद सुप्रीम कोर्ट में विजय प्राप्त की और नाथूराम का वक्तव्य प्रकाशित किया गया l
*“मैंने गांधी को क्यों मारा”*
Presented by Gaurav Katiyar ~

नाथूराम गोड़से ने गांधी हत्या के पक्ष में अपनी 150 दलीलें न्यायलय के समक्ष प्रस्तुति की ll

“नाथूराम गोड़से के वक्तव्य के कुछ मुख्य अंश”

🔸1. नाथूराम का विचार था कि गांधी जी की अहिंसा हिन्दुओं को कायर बना देगी | कानपुर में गणेश शंकर विद्यार्थी को मुसलमानों ने निर्दयता से मार दिया था महात्मा गांधी सभी हिन्दुओं से गणेश शंकर विद्यार्थी की तरह अहिंसा के मार्ग पर चलकर बलिदान करने की बात करते थे | नाथूराम गोड़से को भय था गांधी जी की ये अहिंसा वाली नीति हिन्दुओं को कमजोर बना देगी और वो अपना अधिकार कभी प्राप्त नहीं कर पायेंगे l


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🔸2. 1919 को अमृतसर के जलियाँवाला बाग़ गोलीकांड के बाद से पुरे देश में ब्रिटिश हुकुमत के खिलाफ आक्रोश उफ़ान पे था | 
भारतीय जनता इस नरसंहार के खलनायक जनरल डायर पर अभियोग चलाने की मंशा लेकर गांधी जी के पास गयी लेकिन गांधी जी ने भारतवासियों के इस आग्रह को समर्थन देने से साफ़ मना कर दिया l


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🔸3. महात्मा गांधी ने खिलाफ़त आन्दोलन का समर्थन करके भारतीय राजनीति में साम्प्रदायिकता का जहर घोल दिया | महात्मा गांधी खुद को मुसलमानों का हितैषी की तरह पेश करते थे वो केरल के मोपला मुसलमानों द्वारा वहाँ के 1500 हिन्दूओं को मारने और 2000 से अधिक हिन्दुओं को मुसलमान बनाये जाने की घटना का विरोध तक नहीं कर सके l


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🔸4. कांग्रेस के त्रिपुरा अधिवेशन में नेताजी सुभाष चन्द्र बोस को बहुमत से काँग्रेस अध्यक्ष चुन लिया गया किन्तु गांधी जी ने अपने प्रिय सीतारमय्या का समर्थन कर रहे थे | गांधी जी ने सुभाष चन्द्र बोस से जोर जबरदस्ती करके इस्तीफ़ा देने के लिए मजबूर कर दिया |


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🔸5. 23 मार्च 1931 को भगत सिंह, सुखदेव और राजगुरु को फांसी दे दी गयी | पूरा देश इन वीर बालकों की फांसी को टालने के लिए महात्मा गांधी से प्रार्थना कर रहा था लेकिन गांधी जी ने भगत सिंह की हिंसा को अनुचित ठहराते हुए देशवासियों की इस उचित माँग को अस्वीकार कर दिया l


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🔸6. गांधी जी कश्मीर के हिन्दू राजा हरि सिंह से कहा कि कश्मीर मुस्लिम बहुल क्षेत्र है अत: वहां का शासक कोई मुसलमान होना चाहिए | अतएव राजा हरिसिंह को शासन छोड़ कर काशी जाकर प्रायश्चित करने | जबकि हैदराबाद के निज़ाम के शासन का गांधी जी ने समर्थन किया था जबकि हैदराबाद हिन्दू बहुल क्षेत्र था | गांधी जी की नीतियाँ धर्म के साथ, बदलती रहती थी | उनकी मृत्यु के पश्चात सरदार पटेल ने सशक्त बलों के सहयोग से हैदराबाद को भारत में मिलाने का कार्य किया | गांधी जी के रहते ऐसा करना संभव नहीं होता |


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🔸7. पाकिस्तान में हो रहे भीषण रक्तपात से किसी तरह से अपनी जान बचाकर भारत आने वाले विस्थापित हिन्दुओं ने दिल्ली की खाली मस्जिदों में जब अस्थाई शरण ली | मुसलमानों ने मस्जिद में रहने वाले हिन्दुओं का विरोध किया जिसके आगे गांधी नतमस्तक हो गये और गांधी ने उन विस्थापित हिन्दुओं को जिनमें वृद्ध, स्त्रियाँ व बालक अधिक थे मस्जिदों से खदेड़ बाहर ठिठुरते शीत में रात बिताने पर मजबूर किया गया l


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🔸8. महात्मा गांधी ने दिल्ली स्थित मंदिर में अपनी प्रार्थना सभा के दौरान नमाज पढ़ी जिसका मंदिर के पुजारी से लेकर तमाम हिन्दुओं ने विरोध किया लेकिन गांधी जी ने इस विरोध को दरकिनार कर दिया | लेकिन महात्मा गांधी एक बार भी किसी मस्जिद में जाकर गीता का पाठ नहीं कर सके |


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🔸9. लाहौर कांग्रेस में वल्लभभाई पटेल का बहुमत से विजय प्राप्त हुयी किन्तु गान्धी अपनी जिद के कारण यह पद जवाहरलाल नेहरु को दिया गया | गांधी जी अपनी मांग को मनवाने के लिए अनशन-धरना-रूठना किसी से बात न करने जैसी युक्तियों को अपनाकर अपना काम निकलवाने में माहिर थे | इसके लिए वो नीति-अनीति का लेशमात्र विचार भी नहीं करते थे |


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🔸10. 14 जून 1947 को दिल्ली में आयोजित अखिल भारतीय कांग्रेस समिति की बैठक में भारत विभाजन का प्रस्ताव अस्वीकृत होने वाला था, लेकिन गांधी जी ने वहाँ पहुँच कर प्रस्ताव का समर्थन करवाया। यह भी तब जबकि गांधी जी ने स्वयं ही यह कहा था कि देश का विभाजन उनकी लाश पर होगा। न सिर्फ देश का विभाजन हुआ बल्कि लाखों निर्दोष लोगों का कत्लेआम भी हुआ लेकिन गांधी जी ने कुछ नहीं किया |


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🔸11. धर्म-निरपेक्षता के नाम पर मुस्लिम तुष्टीकरण की नीति के जन्मदाता महात्मा गाँधी ही थे | जब मुसलमानों ने हिंदी को राष्ट्रभाषा बनाये जाने का विरोध किया तो महात्मा गांधी ने सहर्ष ही इसे स्वीकार कर लिया और हिंदी की जगह हिन्दुस्तानी (हिंदी + उर्दू की खिचड़ी) को बढ़ावा देने लगे | बादशाह राम और बेगम सीता जैसे शब्दों का चलन शुरू हुआ |


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🔸12. कुछ एक मुसलमान द्वारा वंदेमातरम् गाने का विरोध करने पर महात्मा गांधी झुक गये और इस पावन गीत को भारत का राष्ट्र गान नहीं बनने दिया |


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🔸13. गांधी जी ने अनेक अवसरों पर शिवाजी, महाराणा प्रताप व गुरू गोबिन्द सिंह को पथभ्रष्ट देशभक्त कहा। वही दूसरी ओर गांधी जी मोहम्मद अली जिन्ना को क़ायदे-आजम कहकर पुकारते थे |


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🔸14. कांग्रेस ने 1931 में स्वतंत्र भारत के राष्ट्र ध्वज बनाने के लिए एक समिति का गठन किया था इस समिति ने सर्वसम्मति से चरखा अंकित भगवा वस्त्र को भारत का राष्ट्र ध्वज के डिजाइन को मान्यता दी किन्तु गांधी जी की जिद के कारण उसे बदल कर तिरंगा कर दिया गया l


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🔸15. जब सरदार वल्लभ भाई पटेल के नेतृत्व में सोमनाथ मन्दिर का सरकारी व्यय पर पुनर्निर्माण का प्रस्ताव पारित किया गया तब गांधी जी जो कि मन्त्रीमण्डल के सदस्य भी नहीं थे ने सोमनाथ मन्दिर पर सरकारी व्यय के प्रस्ताव को निरस्त करवाया और 13 जनवरी 1948 को आमरण अनशन के माध्यम से सरकार पर दिल्ली की मस्जिदों का सरकारी खर्चे से पुनर्निर्माण कराने के लिए दबाव डाला l


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🔸16. भारत को स्वतंत्रता के बाद पाकिस्तान को एक समझौते के तहत 75 करोड़ रूपये देने थे भारत ने 20 करोड़ रूपये दे भी दिए थे लेकिन इसी बीच 22 अक्टूबर 1947 को पाकिस्तान ने कश्मीर पर आक्रमण कर दिया | केन्द्रीय मन्त्रिमण्डल ने आक्रमण से क्षुब्ध होकर 55 करोड़ की राशि न देने का निर्णय लिया | जिसका महात्मा गांधी ने विरोध किया और आमरण अनशन शुरू कर दिया जिसके परिणामस्वरूप 55 करोड़ की राशि भारत ने पाकिस्तान दे दी ।
महात्मा गांधी भारत के नहीं अपितु पाकिस्तान के राष्ट्रपिता थे जो हर कदम पर पाकिस्तान के पक्ष में खड़े रहे, फिर चाहे पाकिस्तान की मांग जायज हो या नाजायज | गांधी जी ने कदाचित इसकी परवाह नहीं की |


👉उपरोक्त घटनाओं को देशविरोधी मानते हुए नाथूराम गोड़से ने महात्मा गांधी की हत्या को न्यायोचित ठहराने का प्रयास किया | 
नाथूराम ने न्यायालय में स्वीकार किया कि माहात्मा गांधी बहुत बड़े देशभक्त थे उन्होंने निस्वार्थ भाव से देश सेवा की | 
मैं उनका बहुत आदर करता हूँ लेकिन किसी भी देशभक्त को देश के टुकड़े करने के, एक समप्रदाय के साथ पक्षपात करने की अनुमति नहीं दे सकता हूँ | गांधी जी की हत्या के सिवा मेरे पास कोई दूसरा उपाय नहीं था ll

नाथूराम गोड़से ……
द्वारा अदालत में दिए बयान के मुख्य अंश…..

मैने गांधी को नहीं मारा
मैने गांधी का *वध* किया है
गांधी वध..

वो मेरे दुश्मन नहीं थे परन्तु उनके निर्णय राष्ट्र के लिए घातक साबित हो रहे थे..

जब व्यक्ति के पास कोई रास्ता न बचे तब वह मज़बूरी में सही कार्य के लिए गलत रास्ता अपनाता है..

मुस्लिम लीग और पाकिस्तान निर्माण की गलत निति के प्रति गांधीजी की सकारात्मक प्रतिक्रिया ने ही मुझे मजबूर किया..

पाकिस्तान को 55 करोड़ का भुकतान करने की गैरवाजिब मांग को लेकर गांधी जी अनशन पर बैठे..

बटवारे में पाकिस्तान से आ रहे हिन्दुओ की आपबीती और दूरदशा ने मुझे हिला के रख दिया था..

अखंड हिन्दू राष्ट्र 
गांधी जी के कारण मुस्लिम लीग के आगे घुटने टेक रहा था..

बेटो के सामने माँ का खंडित होकर टुकड़ो में बटना 
विभाजित होना असहनीय था..

अपनी ही धरती पर हम परदेशी बन गए थे..

मुस्लिम लीग की सारी गलत मांगो को गांधी जी मानते जा रहे थे..

मैने ये निर्णय किया के भारत माँ को अब और विखंडित और दयनीय स्थिति में नहीं होने देना है तो मुझे गांधी को मारना ही होगा..
और 
मैने इसलिए गांधी को मारा…!!

मुझे पता है इसके लिए मुझे फ़ासी होगी
में इसके लिए भी तैयार हूं…

और हां यदि मातृभूमि की रक्षा करना अपराध हे तो मै यह अपराध बार बार करूँगा
हर बार करूँगा …



और


जब तक सिन्ध नदी पुनः अखंड हिन्द में न बहने लगे तब तक मेरी अस्थियो का विसर्जन नहीं करना !!

मुझे फ़ासी देते वक्त मेरे एक हाथ में केसरिया ध्वज
और दूसरे हाथ में अखंड भारत का नक्शा हो !!

मै फ़ासी चढ़ते वक्त अखंड भारत की जय जय बोलना चाहूँगा !!

हे भारत माँ 
मुझे दुःख हे मै तेरी इतनी ही सेवा कर पाया ..

– नाथूराम गोडसे..

कृपया शेयर जरूर करें ताकि जानकारी सब तक 
पहुँचे l

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From: Chitranjan Sawant < >

Maharana Pratap Is Eternal Source Of Inspiration To Gen X

 

AUM

MAHARANA PRATAP THE GREAT

By Brigadier Chitranjan Sawant,VSM

 

Military men and women who have faced the wily enemy across the borders and have been in the line of fire are indeed great admirers of Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar. The sixteenth century scion of the House of Sisodias had faced the enemy, Moghul king Akbar, minor Sultans of Malwa, Gujarat and Vibhishans among the Rajput royal houses in the then Rajputana. Indeed, he had the solid support of chieftains around Mewar and, of course, enjoyed the unflinching loyalty of the jungle tribes of Bhils who always protected flanks of the great Maharana in distress. The greatness of the giant among men, Pratap Singh, Maharana of Mewar lies in his leadership and capacity to motivate men in adversity and manage money and material in both war and peace. He worked with single minded devotion to duty as a Defender of the Faith, as a king of men and women who looked up to him to defeat the overwhelmingly large enemy forces and save their Mewar Desh and Hindu Dharm from annihilation. Maharana Pratap did not fail in his duty to protect and defend the Honor of his country and its people.

Maharana Pratap had inherited the qualities of grit and determination, the uncommon mental makeup that inspired him to put Service to his subjects before physical and mental comforts of the Self and sustaining the moral courage that in turn built boldness in his personality  to face severe odds and Never Say Die. Above all, it was his spirit of Patriotism that inspired him to put at stake all he had for his beloved motherland, Mewar.

Patriotism made Maharana of Mewar, Pratap Singh Ji, a Great King who rose high to meet the challenge of the mighty Moghuls and not surrender his country, its honour and not submit daughters of Mewar to foreign barbarians to be ravished. Almighty Ishwar stood by Maharana Pratap and help came to him from unexpected quarters at the least expected time. Maharana Pratap was never cowed down by cowardice shown by his brother kings of the Houses of Jaipur, Jodhpur and other minor vassals who bent backwards to lick the feet of invading Moghul kings of Delhi.

Honour, Duty, Country – loyalty to people and rising above narrow minded sectarian interests were flowing in the blue-blooded veins of Maharana Pratap as he had inherited them from his ancestors – Bappa Rawal downwards through, Rana Kumbha who built Vijay Stambh in the Chittor fort after vanquishing the Sultan of Gujarat decisively.

The Moghul rulers of Delhi were no angels. The House of Sisodiyas of Mewar had been waging war with them for three generations without giving up for good. Babur had misinformed classes and masses that he invaded Hindustan at the invitation of Maharana Sangram Singh of Mewar, commonly known as Rana Sangha. Had it been so, Rana Sangha would not have fought a bitter battle against Babur where the latter broke his wine glasses of gold to convince his army that he would be a true adherent of Islam thereafter. Did he keep his word? Moghuls are mum on it.

Humanyu, Babur’s son, was constantly on the run after being defeated by Sher Shah Suri. He found shelter in the Hindu Royal House of Amarkot in Sindh where Akbar was born, protected by the Rajah of Amarkot when Humanyu was out of Bharat. Did Akbar or Bairam Khan repay this loyalty? Moghuls are mum.

Now, Maharana Pratap Singh Ji was doing his onerous duty to keep Mewar safe from the marauding Moghuls led by Akbar whom some ill-informed writers call the Great overlooking his massacre of the Hindus after capturing the Chittorgarh fort from Maharana Uday Singh II.

HALDIGHATI BATTLE

In the annals of bitterly fought battles, the Battle of Haldighati occupies a place of honour. I have had an opportunity to go there in mid-1980s while on an inspection visit to the Sainik School, Chittorgarh. I was indeed overwhelmed by the accounts of the Battle of Haldighati narrated by some knowledgeable lecturers of History. Hair raising accounts of the chivalry of Maharana Pratap mounted on his loyal war horse, Chetak, were heard by me and other tourists who chanced to be there.

Haldighati is a narrow pass in the Aravali hills, a couple of hours drive from the Chittorgarh fort. The earth there is yellowish in colour and thus acquired the name, Haldighati. When the Moghul army commanded in name by Prince Salim but in actual fact by Raja Man Singh of Amer, present House of Jaipur. Not too long ago, Raja Man Singh had visited Maharana Pratap with a proposal of King Akbar asking Maharana Pratap to accept the suzerainty of the Mughal ruler and undergo ignominy of sending daughters of House of Mewar to Akbar’s harem. Man Singh’s family had succumbed to greed of loaves and fishes and had surrendered Jodha Bai to Akbar. A self-respecting man and ruler like Maharana Pratap viewed the proposal with disdain and chose not to host a lunch for Man Singh pretending to be suffering from a severe headache. Man Singh’s coming to battle of Haldighati was indeed an act of revenge.

18th June 1576 when the battle was joined, Maharana Pratap fielded 22,000 soldiers comprising Rajputs, Bhils, and a handful of Pathans. The Mughals fielded 200,000 men in arms, mostly Rajputs and Muslims. When Muslim troops were bewildered by presence of Rajputs on both sides of the dividing line, they were advised to kill both as they were Hindus. In the defile of the narrow valley, the Moghuls could not deploy their full might of artillery and cavalry. When Maharana’s mounted men came charging drunk on Patriotism, the Mughal infantries ran halter shelter. Even the big horses and horsemen of Salim and Mansingh took to their heels. The first round of the battle went in favor of the Maharana’s troopers.

As per the original tactical plan of battle, the Maharana’s army was instructed to fight in the hilly defile and not chase the fleeing Moghuls. However, in the first flush of victory, Maharana himself and his cavalry could not restrain themselves and chased the withdrawing enemy. In the heat of the battle, they followed fleeing Moghul cavalry beyond defile and descended to the plains where a huge Moghul army was waiting to surround them and give battle afresh. Some strategists are of the opinion that it was a ruse of the wily Moghuls to draw the Maharana’s forces out in the open and beat them from a position of advantage.

Maharana Pratap astride his loyal mount, Chetak, was looking for Raja Man Singh to keep his promise of meeting him in the battlefield. He strode at the gallop, at trot and at canter looking for his arch enemy who was hiding in the distant rear to save his skin. Pundit Shyam Narayan Pandey has aptly described the Maharana’s hunt for Man Singh in these words:

“Rana doondhta Man Kahan, Chetak kahta Man Kahan;

Bhala kahta Man kahan……..”

But Man Singh was not to be found.

The war horse Chetak knew what its master was looking for. An elephant was sighted and the Maharana zeroed on it. Chetak closed in, stood on the rear legs giving required height to Maharana for thrusting his deadly lance towards to howdah which had Salim seated in it. The attack of Maharana was so fierce that the Mahaut of the elephant was killed on the spot and the elephant ran away from the battle field screaming. Man Singh was not to be found as he was hiding in the distant rear.

In the heat and dust of battle, Maharana Pratap Singh got separated from the bulk of his army. The Mughal soldiers surrounded him and mounted attack after attack on his body and the steed. Soon came forward a loyal chieftain of Maharana, Sardar Jhala. He appreciated the battle situation and removed the Shirastrn and dhwaj-symbols of royalty, from Maharana’s persona and assumed them on his head so that attackers took him to be the Maharana of Mewar. It was an act of loyalty and patriotism of Sardar Jhala that saved Maharana’s life but the chieftain made the supreme sacrifice for the king and the country.

Maharana of Mewar made a tactical retreat so that he could fight a battle another day. He was followed by his brother, Shakti Singh who had joined the Moghals to vanquish his own brother. But now his brotherly love and patriotism came to the forefront. He killed two Moghul horsemen who were chasing the Maharana and caught up with his brother to shed tears and apologize for his treachery. Chetak fell exhausted and soon breathed his last because of numerous wound sustained in battle. The Maharana of Mewar shed tears and cried for his Chetak like a child. He, however, moved forward to plan for another engagement with the Moghuls on another day.

Maharana showed his prowess as a master strategist of the guerilla warfare when he moved into the Aravali hills. Moving from peak to peak, dale to dale, Maharans Pratap gave no respite to the Moghul troopers and kept them on their toes. Of course, he suffered from privations and penury but did not lose heart. Some accounts speak of his plans to move to the Sind province to garner military support from the Rajput princes there. Lieut Colonel James Todd, a great researcher and historian of Rajputana subscribes to this theory. In his monumental work entitled, “Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan”, Col Todd is very appreciative of the grit and determination of Maharana Pratap to carry on his Patriotic Mission despite adverse circumstances.

BHAMA SHAH OPENED HIS PURSE

Bhama Shah had been a minister of the Sisodia kings for a long time. He, with the dint of merit and hard work had amassed a fortune. Now was the time for Bhama Shah to open his purse and let Maharana Pratap use it to carry on with campaign to keep Mewar free from clutches of the Moghuls of Delhi. Despite reluctance of Maharana Pratap to accept his generous offer of monetary help, Bhama Shah persisted and made sure that the King of Mewar utilized his generous offer to raise an army afresh and reconquer the fortresses from the Mughal forces and make Mewar an independent land of the Brave. Utilising the donation of that great philanthropist, Bhama Shah, Maharana raised an army of 25,000 soldiers and trained them in the art of warfare before equipping them with war horses and weaponry to match the Moghul army. The patriot Bhama Shah had donated enough money to sustain that Mewar Army for 12 years without drawing from the State Exchequer.

Maharana Pratap did exactly that and fulfilled the wishes of Bhama Shah. It was a dream come true.

PERSONALITY OF PRATAP JI

Maharana Pratap Singh also patronized fine arts and music whenever he was not engaged in fighting battles against the treacherous Moghuls of Delhi. The Maharana was quite humane and believed in the principles of war followed by the Rajputs, especially not sexually abusing women of the enemy forces. Once his son, Prince Amar Singh captured some royal women from the family of Rahim, Khan-e-Kanan who was a son of Bairum Khan, the mentor of King Akbar. Maharana had the women returned to Ramim’s palace unharmed. Rahim, also a poet, was so overwhelmed with the generosity of Maharana Pratap that he declined to join any Moghul military campaign against Maharana Pratap.

Maharana Pratap was loyal to his father, King Uday Singh II of Udaipur. His father had nominated his younger brother, Jagmall, a son of the youngest wife of Rana Uday Singh, to be king of Mewar. However, Pratap Ji accepted his father’s decision as a loyal son, despite being the first in the line of succession to the throne. However, the Rajput chieftains did not brook this injustice and physically removed Jagmall from the throne. They beseeched Pratap Ji to become the Maharans and that he accepted.

Born on Shukla Paksh Tritiya, commensurating with 9th May 1540, Pratap Singh Ji had ascended the throne of Mewar on 1st May 1572 at the age of 32 years. Although under political expediency Pratap Ji had solemnized eleven marriages but his first lawfully wedded wife, Maharani Ajabdeh took precedence and was with her darling husband through thick and thin. Their first-born son, Kunwar Amar Singh had succeeded his illustrious father on his untimely demise on 29thJanuary 1597, age 57 years, as the Maharana of Mewar but suffered from the ignominy of contracting a Peace Treaty with King Jehangir of Delhi. Of course, Maharana Amar Singh was exempted from making a personal presence in the Delhi durbar nor go through the insult of sending Rajput princesses of Mewar to the Moghul harem. After signing the Peace Treaty, Maharana Amar Singh was so overtaken by grief that he never made a public appearance thereafter.

Maharana Pratap Singh Ji was always true to his word. He never let down a friend and never stabbed a foe in the back. His personality is an ideal one to be emulated by the new generation of boys, irrespective of the Faith they subscribe to. He was a fierce warrior, a mellowed patriarch and a doting father to his 17 sons and five daughters. He treated all alike.

Once a battle was joined, he asked for no quarters and gave none. Maharana Pratap Singh Ji fought a battle against his enemies like a Dharm Yudh. Indeed, Maharana Pratap was the BRAVEST OF THE BRAVE.

 

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