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From: Pramod Agrawal < >

अयोध्या की कहानी

कृपया इस लेख को पढ़ें, तथा प्रतेक हिन्दूँ मिञों को अधिक से अधिक शेयर करें।

 

जब बाबर दिल्ली की गद्दी पर आसीन हुआ उस समय जन्मभूमि सिद्ध महात्मा श्यामनन्द जी महाराज के अधिकार क्षेत्र में थी। महात्मा श्यामनन्द की ख्याति

सुनकर ख्वाजा कजल अब्बास मूसा आशिकान अयोध्या आये । महात्मा जी के शिष्य बनकर ख्वाजा कजल अब्बास मूसा ने योग और सिद्धियाँ प्राप्त कर ली और उनका नाम भी महात्मा श्यामनन्द के ख्यातिप्राप्त शिष्यों में लिया जाने लगा।

ये सुनकर जलालशाह नाम का एक फकीर भी महात्मा श्यामनन्द के पास आया और उनका शिष्य बनकर सिद्धियाँ प्राप्त करने लगा। जलालशाह एक कट्टर मुसलमान था, और उसको एक ही सनक थी, हर जगह इस्लाम का आधिपत्य साबित करना । अत: जलालशाह ने अपने काफिर गुरू की पीठ में छुरा घोंपकर ख्वाजा कजल अब्बास मूसा के साथ मिलकर ये विचार किया की यदि इस मदिर को

तोड़ कर मस्जिद बनवा दी जाये तो इस्लाम का परचम हिन्दुस्थान में स्थायी हो जायेगा। धीरे धीरे जलालशाह और ख्वाजा कजल अब्बास मूसा इस साजिश को अंजाम देने की तैयारियों में जुट गए ।

सर्वप्रथम जलालशाह और ख्वाजा बाबर के विश्वासपात्र बने और दोनों ने अयोध्या को खुर्द मक्का बनाने के लिए जन्मभूमि के आसपास की जमीनों में बलपूर्वक मृत मुसलमानों को दफन करना शुरू किया॥ और मीरबाँकी खां के माध्यम से बाबर को उकसाकर मंदिर के विध्वंस का कार्यक्रम बनाया। बाबा श्यामनन्द जी अपने मुस्लिम शिष्यों की करतूत देख के बहुत दुखी हुए और अपने निर्णय पर उन्हें बहुत पछतावा हुआ।

दुखी मन से बाबा श्यामनन्द जी ने रामलला की मूर्तियाँ सरयू में प्रवाहित किया और खुद हिमालय की और तपस्या करने चले गए। मंदिर के पुजारियों ने मंदिर के अन्य सामान आदि हटा लिए और वे स्वयं मंदिर के द्वार पर रामलला की रक्षा के लिए खड़े हो गए। जलालशाह की आज्ञा के अनुसार उन चारो पुजारियों के सर काट लिए गए. जिस समय मंदिर को गिराकर मस्जिद बनाने की घोषणा हुई उस समय भीटी के राजा महताब सिंह बद्री नारायण की यात्रा करने के लिए निकले थे, अयोध्या पहुचने पर रास्ते में उन्हें ये खबर मिली तो उन्होंने अपनी यात्रा स्थगित कर दी और अपनी छोटी सेना में रामभक्तों को शामिल कर १ लाख चौहत्तर हजार लोगो के साथ बाबर की सेना के ४ लाख ५० हजार सैनिकों से लोहा लेने निकल पड़े।

रामभक्तों ने सौगंध ले रक्खी थी रक्त की आखिरी बूंद तक लड़ेंगे जब तक प्राण है तब तक मंदिर नहीं गिरने देंगे। रामभक्त वीरता के साथ लड़े ७० दिनों तक घोर संग्राम होता रहा और अंत में राजा महताब सिंह समेत सभी १ लाख ७४ हजार रामभक्त मारे गए। श्रीराम जन्मभूमि रामभक्तों के रक्त से लाल हो गयी। इस भीषण कत्ले आम के बाद मीरबांकी ने तोप लगा के मंदिर गिरवा दिया । मंदिर के मसाले से ही मस्जिद का निर्माण हुआ पानी की जगह मरे हुए हिन्दुओं का रक्त इस्तेमाल किया गया नीव में लखौरी इंटों के साथ ।

इतिहासकार कनिंघम अपने लखनऊ गजेटियर के 66वें अंक के पृष्ठ 3 पर लिखता है की एक लाख चौहतर हजार हिंदुओं की लाशें गिर जाने के पश्चात मीरबाँकी अपने मंदिर ध्वस्त करने के अभियान मे सफल हुआ और उसके बाद जन्मभूमि के चारो और तोप लगवाकर मंदिर को ध्वस्त कर दिया गया.. इसी प्रकार हैमिल्टन नाम का एक अंग्रेज बाराबंकी गजेटियर में लिखता है की ” जलालशाह ने हिन्दुओं के खून का गारा बना के लखौरी ईटों की नीव मस्जिद बनवाने के लिए दी गयी थी। उस समय अयोध्या से ६ मील की दूरी पर सनेथू नाम का एक गाँव के पंडित देवीदीन पाण्डेय ने वहां के आस पास के गांवों सराय सिसिंडा राजेपुर आदि के सूर्यवंशीय क्षत्रियों को एकत्रित किया॥ देवीदीन पाण्डेय ने सूर्यवंशीय क्षत्रियों से कहा भाइयों आप लोग मुझे अपना राजपुरोहित मानते हैं ..अप के पूर्वज श्री राम थे और हमारे पूर्वज महर्षि भरद्वाज जी। आज मर्यादा पुरुषोत्तम श्री राम की जन्मभूमि को मुसलमान आक्रान्ता कब्रों से पाट रहे हैं और खोद रहे हैं इस परिस्थिति में हमारा मूकदर्शक बन कर जीवित रहने की बजाय जन्मभूमि की रक्षार्थ युद्ध करते करते वीरगति पाना ज्यादा उत्तम होगा॥

देवीदीन पाण्डेय की आज्ञा से दो दिन के भीतर ९० हजार क्षत्रिय इकठ्ठा हो गए दूर दूर के गांवों से लोग समूहों में इकठ्ठा हो कर देवीदीन पाण्डेय के नेतृत्व में जन्मभूमि पर जबरदस्त धावा बोल दिया । शाही सेना से लगातार ५ दिनों तक युद्ध हुआ । छठे दिन मीरबाँकी का सामना देवीदीन पाण्डेय से हुआ उसी समय धोखे से उसके अंगरक्षक ने एक लखौरी ईंट से पाण्डेय जी की खोपड़ी पर वार कर दिया। देवीदीन पाण्डेय का सर बुरी तरह फट गया मगर उस वीर ने अपने पगड़ी से खोपड़ी से बाँधा और तलवार से उस कायर अंगरक्षक का सर काट दिया। इसी बीच मीरबाँकी ने छिपकर गोली चलायी जो पहले ही से घायल देवीदीन पाण्डेय जी को लगी और वो जन्मभूमि की रक्षा में वीर गति को प्राप्त हुए..जन्मभूमि फिर से 90 हजार हिन्दुओं के रक्त से लाल हो गयी। देवीदीन पाण्डेय के वंशज सनेथू ग्राम के ईश्वरी पांडे का पुरवा नामक जगह पर अब भी मौजूद हैं॥ पाण्डेय जी की मृत्यु के १५ दिन बाद हंसवर के महाराज रणविजय सिंह ने सिर्फ २५ हजार सैनिकों के साथ मीरबाँकी की विशाल और शस्त्रों से सुसज्जित सेना से रामलला को मुक्त कराने के लिए आक्रमण किया । 10 दिन तक युद्ध चला और महाराज जन्मभूमि के रक्षार्थ वीरगति को प्राप्त हो गए। जन्मभूमि में 25 हजार हिन्दुओं का रक्त फिर बहा। रानी जयराज कुमारी हंसवर के स्वर्गीय महाराज रणविजय सिंह की पत्नी थी।

जन्मभूमि की रक्षा में महाराज के वीरगति प्राप्त करने के बाद महारानी ने उनके कार्य को आगे बढ़ाने का बीड़ा उठाया और तीन हजार नारियों की सेना लेकर उन्होंने जन्मभूमि पर हमला बोल दिया और हुमायूं के समय तक उन्होंने छापामार युद्ध जारी रखा। रानी के गुरु स्वामी महेश्वरानंद जी ने रामभक्तों को इकठ्ठा करके सेना का प्रबंध करके जयराज कुमारी की सहायता की। साथ ही स्वामी महेश्वरानंद जी ने सन्यासियों की सेना बनायीं इसमें उन्होंने २४ हजार सन्यासियों को इकठ्ठा किया और रानी जयराज कुमारी के साथ , हुमायूँ के समय में कुल १० हमले जन्मभूमि के उद्धार के लिए किये। १०वें हमले में शाही सेना को काफी नुकसान हुआ और जन्मभूमि पर रानी जयराज कुमारी का अधिकार हो गया।

लेकिन लगभग एक महीने बाद हुमायूँ ने पूरी ताकत से शाही सेना फिर भेजी , इस युद्ध में स्वामी महेश्वरानंद और रानी कुमारी जयराज कुमारी लड़ते हुए अपनी बची हुई सेना के साथ मारे गए और जन्मभूमि पर पुनः मुगलों का अधिकार हो गया। श्रीराम जन्मभूमि एक बार फिर कुल 24 हजार सन्यासियों और 3 हजार वीर नारियों के रक्त से लाल हो गयी। रानी जयराज कुमारी और स्वामी महेश्वरानंद जी के बाद यद्ध का नेतृत्व स्वामी बलरामचारी जी ने अपने हाथ में ले लिया। स्वामी बलरामचारी जी ने गांव गांव में घूम कर रामभक्त हिन्दू युवकों और सन्यासियों की एक मजबूत सेना तैयार करने का प्रयास किया और जन्मभूमि के उद्धारार्थ २० बार आक्रमण किये. इन २० हमलों में काम से काम १५ बार स्वामी बलरामचारी ने जन्मभूमि पर अपना अधिकार कर लिया मगर ये अधिकार अल्प समय के लिए रहता था थोड़े दिन बाद बड़ी शाही फ़ौज आती थी और जन्मभूमि पुनः मुगलों के अधीन हो जाती थी..जन्मभूमि में लाखों हिन्दू बलिदान होते रहे। उस समय का मुग़ल शासक अकबर था।

शाही सेना हर दिन के इन युद्धों से कमजोर हो रही थी.. अतः अकबर ने बीरबल और टोडरमल के कहने पर खस की टाट से उस चबूतरे पर ३ फीट का एक छोटा सा मंदिर बनवा दिया. लगातार युद्ध करते रहने के कारण स्वामी बलरामचारी का स्वास्थ्य गिरता चला गया था और प्रयाग कुम्भ के अवसर पर त्रिवेणी तट पर स्वामी बलरामचारी की मृत्यु हो गयी .. इस प्रकार बार-बार के आक्रमणों और हिन्दू जनमानस के रोष एवं हिन्दुस्थान पर मुगलों की ढीली होती पकड़ से बचने का एक राजनैतिक प्रयास की अकबर की इस कूटनीति से कुछ दिनों के लिए जन्मभूमि में रक्त नहीं बहा।

यही क्रम शाहजहाँ के समय भी चलता रहा। फिर औरंगजेब के हाथ सत्ता आई वो कट्टर मुसलमान था और उसने समस्त भारत से काफिरों के सम्पूर्ण सफाये का संकल्प लिया था। उसने लगभग 10 बार अयोध्या मे मंदिरों को तोड़ने का अभियान चलकर यहाँ के सभी प्रमुख मंदिरों की मूर्तियों को तोड़ डाला।

औरंगजेब के हाथ सत्ता आई वो कट्टर मुसलमान था और उसने समस्त भारत से काफिरों के सम्पूर्ण सफाये का संकल्प लिया था। उसने लगभग 10 बार अयोध्या मे मंदिरों को तोड़ने का अभियान चलकर यहाँ के सभी प्रमुख मंदिरों की मूर्तियों को तोड़ डाला। औरंगजेब के समय में समर्थ गुरु श्री रामदास जी महाराज जी के शिष्य श्री वैष्णवदास जी ने जन्मभूमि के उद्धारार्थ 30 बार आक्रमण किये। इन आक्रमणों मे अयोध्या के आस पास के गांवों के सूर्यवंशीय क्षत्रियों ने पूर्ण सहयोग दिया जिनमे सराय के ठाकुर सरदार गजराज सिंह और राजेपुर के कुँवर गोपाल सिंह तथा सिसिण्डा के ठाकुर जगदंबा सिंह प्रमुख थे। ये सारे वीर ये जानते हुए भी की उनकी सेना और हथियार बादशाही सेना के सामने कुछ भी नहीं है अपने जीवन के आखिरी समय तक शाही सेना से लोहा लेते रहे। लम्बे समय तक चले इन युद्धों में रामलला को मुक्त कराने के लिए हजारों हिन्दू वीरों ने अपना बलिदान दिया और अयोध्या की धरती पर उनका रक्त बहता रहा। ठाकुर गजराज सिंह और उनके साथी क्षत्रियों के वंशज आज भी सराय मे मौजूद हैं। आज भी फैजाबाद जिले के आस पास के सूर्यवंशीय क्षत्रिय सिर पर पगड़ी नहीं बांधते, जूता नहीं पहनते, छता नहीं लगाते, उन्होने अपने पूर्वजों के सामने ये प्रतिज्ञा ली थी की जब तक श्री राम जन्मभूमि का उद्धार नहीं कर लेंगे तब तक जूता नहीं पहनेंगे, छाता नहीं लगाएंगे, पगड़ी नहीं पहनेंगे। 1640 ईस्वी में औरंगजेब ने मन्दिर को ध्वस्त करने के लिए जबांज खाँ के नेतृत्व में एक जबरजस्त सेना भेज दी थी, बाबा वैष्णव दास के साथ साधुओं की एक सेना थी जो हर विद्या मे निपुण थी इसे चिमटाधारी साधुओं की सेना भी कहते थे । जब जन्मभूमि पर जबांज खाँ ने आक्रमण किया तो हिंदुओं के साथ चिमटाधारी साधुओं की सेना की सेना मिल गयी और उर्वशी कुंड नामक जगह पर जाबाज़ खाँ की सेना से सात दिनों तक भीषण युद्ध किया । चिमटाधारी साधुओं के चिमटे के मार से मुगलों की सेना भाग खड़ी हुई। इस प्रकार चबूतरे पर स्थित मंदिर की रक्षा हो गयी । जाबाज़ खाँ की पराजित सेना को देखकर औरंगजेब बहुत क्रोधित हुआ और उसने जाबाज़ खाँ को हटाकर एक अन्य सिपहसालार सैय्यद हसन अली को 50 हजार सैनिकों की सेना और तोपखाने के साथ अयोध्या की ओर भेजा और साथ मे ये आदेश दिया की अबकी बार जन्मभूमि को बर्बाद करके वापस आना है , यह समय सन् 1680 का था । बाबा वैष्णव दास ने सिक्खों के गुरु गुरुगोविंद सिंह से युद्ध मे सहयोग के लिए पत्र के माध्यम संदेश भेजा । पत्र पाकर गुरु गुरुगोविंद सिंह सेना समेत तत्काल अयोध्या आ गए और ब्रहमकुंड पर अपना डेरा डाला । ब्रहमकुंड वही जगह जहां आजकल गुरुगोविंद सिंह की स्मृति मे सिक्खों का गुरुद्वारा बना हुआ है। बाबा वैष्णव दास एवं सिक्खों के गुरुगोविंद सिंह रामलला की रक्षा हेतु एकसाथ रणभूमि में कूद पड़े ।इन वीरों कें सुनियोजित हमलों से मुगलो की सेना के पाँव उखड़ गये सैय्यद हसन अली भी युद्ध मे मारा गया। औरंगजेब हिंदुओं की इस प्रतिक्रिया से स्तब्ध रह गया था और इस युद्ध के बाद 4 साल तक उसने अयोध्या पर हमला करने की हिम्मत नहीं की। औरंगजेब ने सन् 1664 मे एक बार फिर श्री राम जन्मभूमि पर आक्रमण किया । इस भीषण हमले में शाही फौज ने लगभग 10 हजार से ज्यादा हिंदुओं की हत्या कर दी नागरिकों तक को नहीं छोड़ा। जन्मभूमि हिन्दुओं के रक्त से लाल हो गयी। जन्मभूमि के अंदर नवकोण के एक कंदर्प कूप नाम का कुआं था, सभी मारे गए हिंदुओं की लाशें मुगलों ने उसमे फेककर चारों ओर चहारदीवारी उठा कर उसे घेर दिया। आज भी कंदर्पकूप “गज शहीदा” के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है, और जन्मभूमि के पूर्वी द्वार पर स्थित है। शाही सेना ने जन्मभूमि का चबूतरा खोद डाला .

 

 

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From: Pramod Agrawal < > wrote:

मुस्लिम बादशाओं के हिंदुओं पर अत्याचार और हत्याएं और मंदिरों को लूटना और तोडना ——-

क्या कभी वामपंथी और कोंग्रस इतिहासकारों ने आपको ये बताया ?

👇🏽

१. सन् 1018 में मुस्लिम तुर्कीयों का आक्रमण और मुस्लिम अब्दुल कासिम महमुद(महमुद गजनी) के द्वारा 50 हजार हिन्दुओं का कत्ल, हजारो स्त्रियों के साथ दुराचार व लगभग १ हजार मन्दिरो को नष्ट करना ।

२. सन् 1024 मे महमुद गजनी का पुन: आक्रमण और 50 हजार हिन्दुओं का कत्ल, सोमनाथ मन्दिर की लुट, और मन्दिर को तोड़ देना ।

३. सन् 1193 मे मुहमद गौरी का आक्रमण और 1 लाख हिन्दुओं का कत्ल ।

४. सन् 1196 कुतुब अल दीन ऐबक का आक्रमण और 1 लाख से ज्यादा हिन्दुओं का कत्ल ।

५. सन् 1197 मुहम्मद बिन बख्तियार खिलजी का अाक्रमण करके नालन्दा विश्वविधालय को धव्स्त करना और 10 हजार हिन्दु और बौद्धष्ठो का कत्ल ।

६. गयासुद्दीन बलबन का आक्रमण और मेवात के 1 लाख राजपुतो का कत्ल करना ।

७. सन् 1323 मे मुहम्मद बिन तुगलक के द्वारा 12 हजार हिन्दुओं का कत्ल ।

८. सन् 1353 मे फिरोज शाह तुगलक के द्वारा 1 लाख 80 हजार हिन्दुओं का कत्ल ।

९. सन् 1366 में बहमनी सल्तनत के द्वारा 5 लाख हिन्दुओं का कत्ल, गर्भवती स्त्रियों का पेट काटना, और हिन्दु महिलाओं के साथ दुराचार ।

१०. सन् 1398 तैमुर का भारत पर आक्रमण करके 45 लाख हिन्दुओं का हरियाणा मे कत्ल करना ।

११. सन् 1398 मे तैमुर द्वारा पर भटनेर के किले पर आक्रमण करके सम्पुर्ण आबादी का सफाया।

१२. सन् 1398 मे ही तैमुर द्वारा गाजियाबाद के निकट लगभग 1 लाख स्त्रियों और बच्चो का दुराचार के बाद कत्ल करना । ।

१३. सन् 1398 मे तैमुर द्वारा दिल्ली मे 1.5 लाख हिन्दु समेत अन्य धर्मो के लोगो का कत्ल ।

१४. सन् 1399 में तैमुर मेरठ में द्वारा 3 लाख हिन्दुओं का कत्ल, और लाखो स्त्रियों के साथ दुराचार ।

१५. मार्च 1527 खानवा के युद्ध मे बाबर की सेना द्वारा 20 हजार हिन्दुओं की हत्या, जिसमे से 10 हजार राजपुत सैनिक बलिदान हुये ।

१६. सन् 1560 मे अकबर द्वारा नरसिंहपुर जिले मे 48 हजार हिन्दुओं की हत्या, मुख्यत: राजपुत मारे गये ।

१७. सन् 1565 मे दक्कन के सुलतान द्वारा 1 लाख से अधिक हिन्दुओं का नरसंहार और सभी मुख्य मन्दिरो को ध्वस्त करना ।

१८. सन् 1568 अकबर द्वारा किये गये आक्रमण मे चितौड़ केे 30 हजार राजपुतो का नरसंहार, और 8 हजार स्त्रियों का हरम मे जाने से बचने के लिये स्वयं को समापत कर लेना ।

१९. सन् 1618 से 1707 के मध्य मुगल साम्रज्य और ओरंगजेब के द्वारा 46 लाख हिन्दुओं की हत्या, लगभग 15 लाख ब्राहम्ण की हत्या काशी, हरिद्वार व अन्य स्थानो पर ।

२०. सन् 1738 से लेकर 1740 के मध्य नादिर शाह( फारसीयो द्वारा) के द्वारा 3 लाख हिन्दुओं की हत्या ।

२१. सन् १७६१ मे अफगानो के आक्रमण पर मराठो के साथ युद्ध मे 70 हजार मराठों का बलिदान होना, और 22 हजार मराठा स्त्रियों और बच्चों को गुलाम बनाना।

(बाबरी मस्जिद विवाद और वामपंथी फरेब)

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इलाहाबाद उच्च न्यायालय के ऐतिहासिक फैसले ने विवादित स्थल पर मंदिर होने के शोधपूर्ण वैज्ञानिक निष्कर्षों की पुष्टि तो की ही थी, साथ ही साथ मस्जिद-कमिटी की ओर से गवाह के तौर पर वामपंथी इतिहासकार इरफ़ान हबीब की अगुवाई में पेश हुए देश के तमाम वामपंथी इतिहासकारों के फरेब को भी न्यायालय ने उजागर किया था l न्यायालय को ये टिप्पणी करनी पडी थी कि इन इतिहासकारों ने अपने रवैये से उलझाव, विवाद, और सम्प्रदायों में तनाव पैदा करने की कोशिश की और इनका विषय-ज्ञान छिछला है l क्रॉस एग्जामिनेशन में पकड़े गए इनके फरेबों के दृष्टांत आपको हैरत में डाल देंगे :-

(1) वामपंथी इतिहासकार प्रोफ़ेसर मंडल ने ये स्वीकारा कि खुदाई का वर्णन करती उनकी पुस्तक दरअसल उन्होंने बिना अयोध्या गए ही (मामले को भटकाने के लिए) लिख दी थी l

(2) वामपंथी इतिहासकार सुशील श्रीवास्तव ने ये स्वीकार किया कि प्रमाण के तौर पर पेश की गयी उनकी पुस्तक में संदर्भ के तौर पर दिए पुस्तकों का उल्लेख उन्होंने बिना पढ़े ही कर दिया है l

(3) जेएनयू की इतिहास-प्रोफ़ेसर सुप्रिया वर्मा ने ये स्वीकार किया कि उन्होंने खुदाई से संदर्भित ‘राडार सर्वे’ की रिपोर्ट को पढ़े बगैर ही रिपोर्ट के गलत होने की गवाही दे दी थी l

(4) अलीगढ मुस्लिम यूनिवर्सिटी की प्रोफ़ेसर जया मेनन ने ये स्वीकारा कि वे तो खुदाई स्थल पर गयी ही नहीं थी लेकिन ये (झूठी) गवाही दे दी थी कि मंदिर के खंभे बाद में वहां रखे गए थे l

(5) ‘एक्सपर्ट’ के तौर पर उपस्थित वामपंथी सुविरा जायसवाल जब क्रोस एग्जामिनेशन में पकड़ी गयीं तब उन्होंने स्वीकार किया कि उन्हें मुद्दे पर कोई ‘एक्सपर्ट’ ज्ञान नहीं है; जो भी है वो सिर्फ ‘अखबारी खबरों’ के आधार पर ही है l

(6) पुरात्व्वेत्ता वामपंथी शीरीन रत्नाकर ने सवाल-जवाब में ये स्वीकारा कि दरअसल उन्हें कोई “फील्ड-नॉलेज” है ही नहीं l

(7) “एक्सपर्ट” प्रोफ़ेसर मंडल ने ये भी स्वीकारा था, “मुझे बाबर के विषय में इसके अलावा – कि वो सोलहवीं सदी का एक शासक था – और कुछ ज्ञान नहीं है l न्यायधीश ने ये सुन कर कहा था कि इनके ये बयान विषय सम्बंधित इनके छिछले ज्ञान को प्रदर्शित करते है l

(8) वामपंथी सूरजभान मध्यकालीन इतिहासकार के तौर पर गवाही दे रहे थे पर क्रॉस एग्जामिनेशन में ये तथ्य सामने आया कि वे तो इतिहासकार थे ही नहीं, मात्र पुरातत्ववेत्ता थे l

(9) सूरजभान ने ये भी स्वीकारा कि डी एन झा और आर एस शर्मा के साथ लिखी उनकी पुस्तिका “हिस्टोरियंस रिपोर्ट टू द नेशन” दरअसलद खुदाई की रपट पढ़े बगैर ही (मंदिर संबंधी प्रमाणों को झुठलाने के) दबाव में केवल छै हफ्ते में ही लिख दी गयी थी l

(10) वामपंथी शिरीन मौसवी ने क्रॉस एग्जामिनेशन में ये स्वीकार किया कि उन्होंने झूठ कहा था कि राम-जन्मस्थली का ज़िक्र मध्यकालीन इतिहास में नहीं है l

दृष्टान्तों की सूची और लम्बी है l पर विडंबना तो ये है कि लाज हया को ताक पर रख कर वामपंथी इतिहासकार रोमिला थापर ने इन्हीं फरेबी वामपंथी इतिहासकारों व अन्य वामपंथियों का नेतृत्व करते हुए न्यायालय के इसी फैसले के खिलाफ लम्बे लम्बे पर्चे भी लिख डाले थे l पर शर्म इन्हें आती है क्या ?

(सन्दर्भ: Allahabad High court verdict dated 30 September 2010 )

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From: Mohan Natarajan < >

 

14 years ago on this day 24 Kashmiri Pandits were massacred

in Nadimarg Kashmir, here’s their story

By Hemant Bijapurkar

Posted on March 23, 2017

 

It was the night of 23rd March 2003. At about 10:30 PM at night masked terrorists entered Nadimarg, a sleepy village in Pulwama District of Jammu and Kashmir and massacred 24 Kashmiri Pandits including men, women and toddlers.

Now 14 years later we revisit the dastardly incident and remember just one aspect of one of the biggest injustices heaped on the citizens of this country since independence. We were aided in this story by the tweets of Journalist Rahul Pandita who provided information which the establishment has tried to hard to stifle.

In 2003 the village of Nadimarg was home to only some 52 Kashmiri Pandits spread across 4 extended families, with others having already fled the valley during the 1990 exodus of their community. In the days leading up to the massacre, on 21st and 22nd March the assailants which comprised of members of a terrorist group and some youths from a nearby village scouted Nadimarg to ascertain the location of the Kashmiri Pandits.

And on that fateful night of the 23rd, they came with guns. As Rahul narrates, Pandits were taken to a courtyard, made to kneel down and shot in their heads. The assailants didn’t even spare toddlers.

The police later provided a token security to the surviving Pandits in the desperate hope that they stayed on. Not because they wished for the Pandits to remain in their motherland but because they wanted to ensure that the ashes of the victims were disposed of in Kashmir. They feared their making way to Jammu and then possibly getting paraded on the streets could have become an instigator for communal riots.

Mohan Bhatt one of the survivors of this attack recounted how he had managed to save himself by hanging on a roof wedge. His parents, sister and uncle weren’t so fortunate. To further aggravate his pain, the very next day he caught a man from his own village selling his dead mother’s Dejharu, a piece of jewelry sacred to Kashmiri Pandits.

Mohan revealed another shocking detail when he claimed that the terrorists were even accompanied by a few policemen. Even reports from 2003 were suggestive of an investigation against 9 police officers for being complicit in the crime. There were also reports of two terrorists involved in the attack visiting the nearby police picket for months before the attack. But almost all the facts still lie behind a veil of secrecy.

The motive? The assailants reportedly wanted to celebrate Pakistan Resolution Day which also falls on 23rd March or wanted to extol revenge for the post Godhra riots in Gujarat. We might never know as the local police hasn’t made any effort to reveal the identity of the killers let alone punish them.

Most of the above details are a result of a ground zero investigation by Kashmiri Pandit Sangarsh Samiti (KPSS) an organization formed by a group of Pandits who have stayed back in the valley. The president of KPSS Sanjay K Tikoo called it a well-planned attempt and also alleged that nobody has been for the heinous attack.

It has been fourteen years since the attack took place and battling the haunting memory of that fateful night, the Pandits from Nadimarg still await justice.

 

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From: Pramod Agrawal < >

 

Valmikis’ stunningly accurate account:

The facts about Ram…

The story of Shri Rams’ life was first narrated by Maharishi Valmiki in the Ramayana, which was written after Shri Ram was crowned as the king of Ayodhya. Maharishi Valmiki was a great astronomer as he has made sequential astronomical references on important dates related to the life of Shri Ram indicating the location of planets vis-a-vis zodiac constellations and the other stars (nakshatras).

Needless to add that similar position of planets and nakshatras is not repeated in thousands of years.

By entering the precise details of the planetary configuration of the important events in the life of Shri Ram as given in the Valmiki Ramayan in the software named “Planetarium” corresponding exact dates of these events according to the English calendar can be known.

Mr Pushkar Bhatnagar, of the Indian Revenue Service, had acquired this software from the US. It is used to predict the solar/lunar eclipses and distance and location of other planets from earth. He entered the relevant details about the planetary positions narrated by Maharishi Valmiki and obtained very interesting and convincing results, which almost determine the important dates starting from the birth of Shri Ram to the date of his coming back to Ayodhya after 14 years of exile. Maharishi Valmiki has recorded in Bal Kaand, sarga 19 and shloka eight and nine (1/18/8,9), that Shri Ram was born on ninth tithi of Chaitra month when the position of different planets vis-a-vis zodiac constellations and nakshatras (visible stars) were:

  1. i) Sun in Aries; ii) Saturn in Libra; iii) Jupiter in Cancer; iv) Venus in Pisces; v) Mars in Capricorn; vi) Lunar month of Chaitra; vii) Ninth day after no moon; viii) Lagna as Cancer (cancer was rising in the east); ix) Moon on the Punarvasu (Gemini constellation & Pllux star); x) Day time (around noon).

This data was fed into the software. The results indicated that this was exactly the location of planets/stars in the noon of January 10, 5114 BC. Thus, Shri Ram was born on January 10, 5114 BC (7121 years back). As per the Indian calendar, it was the ninth day of Shukla Paksha in Chaitra month and the time was around 12 to 1 noontime. This is exactly the time and date when Ram Navmi is celebrated all over India.

Shri Ram was born in Ayodhya. This fact can be ascertained from several books written by Indian and foreign authors before and after the birth of Christ – Valmiki Ramayan, Tulsi Ramayan, Kalidasas’ , Baudh and Jain literature, etc.

These books have narrated in great detail the location, rich architecture and beauty of Ayodhya which had many palaces and temples built all over the kingdom. Ayodhya was located on the banks of the Saryu river with Gangaand Panchal Pradesh on one side and Mithila on the other side.

Normally 7,000 years is a very long period during which earthquakes, storms, floods and foreign invasions change the course of rivers, destroy the towns/buildings and alter the territories. Therefore, the task of unearthing the facts is monumental.

The present Ayodhya has shrunk in size and the rivers have changed their course about 40 km north/south. Shri Ram went out of Ayodhya in his childhood

(13th year as per Valmiki Ramayan) with Rishi Vishwamitra who lived in Tapovan (Sidhhashram). From there he went to Mithila, King Janaks’ kingdom. Here, he married Sita after breaking Shiv Dhanusha.

Researchers have gone along the route adopted by Shri Ram as narrated in the Valmiki Ramayan and found 23 places which have memorials that commemorate the events related to the life of Shri Ram. These include:

Shringi Ashram,

Ramghat,

Tadka Van,

Sidhhashram,

Gautamashram,

Janakpur (now in Nepal),

Sita Kund, etc.

Memorials are built for great men and not for fictitious characters. Date of exile of Shri Ram: It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayans’ Ayodhya Kand (2/4/18) that Dashratha wanted to make Shri Ram the king because Sun, Mars and Rahu had surrounded his nakshatra and normally under such planetary configuration the king dies or becomes a victim of conspiracies.

Dashrathas’ zodiac sign was Pisces and his nakshatra was Rewati.

This planetary configuration was prevailing on the January 5, 5089 BC,

and it was on this day that Shri Ram left Ayodhya for 14 years of exile.

Thus, he was 25 years old at that time (5114-5089).

There are several shlokas in Valmiki Ramayan which indicate that Shri Ram

was 25-years-old when he left Ayodhya for exile. Valmiki Ramayan refers to the solar eclipse at the time of war with Khardushan in later half of 13th year of Shri Rams’ exile. It is also mentioned it was amavasya day and Mars was in the middle. When this data was entered, the software indicated that there was a solar eclipse on October 7, 5077 BC, (amavasya day) which could be seen from Panchvati.

The planetary configuration was also the same – Mars was in the middle,

on one side were Venus and Mercury and on the other side were Sun and Saturn.

On the basis of planetary configurations described in various other chapters, the date on which Ravana was killed works out to be December 4, 5076 BC, and Shri Ram completed 14 years of exile on January 2, 5075 BC, and that day was also Navami of Shukla Paksha in Chaitra month. Thus, Shri Ram had come back to Ayodhya at the age of 39 (5114-5075).

A colleague, Dr Ram Avtar, researched on places visited by Shri Ram during his exile, and sequentially moved to the places stated as visited by Shri Ram in the Valmiki Ramayan, starting from Ayodhya he went right upto Rameshwaram.

He found 195 places which still have the memorials connected to the events narrated in the Ramayana relating to the life of Shri Ram and Sita These include Tamsa Tal (Mandah), Shringverpur (Singraur), Bhardwaj Ashram (situated near Allahabad), Atri Ashram, Markandaya Ashram (Markundi), Chitrakoot, Pamakuti (on banks of Godavari), Panchvati, Sita Sarovar, Ram Kund in Triambakeshwar near Nasik, Shabari Ashram, Kishkindha (village Annagorai), Dhanushkoti and Rameshwar temple. In Valmiki Ramayan it is mentioned that Shri Rams’ army constructed a bridge over the sea between Rameshwaram and Lanka.

After crossing this bridge, Shri Rams’ army had defeated Ravana. Recently,

NASA put pictures on the Internet of a man-made bridge, the ruins of which are lying submerged in Palk Strait between Rameshwaram and Sri Lanka.

Recently the Sri Lankan Government had expressed the desire to develop Sita Vatika as a tourist spot. Sri Lankans believe this was Ashok Vatika where Ravana had kept Sita as a prisoner (in 5076 BC).

Indian history has recorded that Shri Ram belonged to the Suryavansh and he was the 64th ruler of this dynasty. The names and other relevant particulars of previous 63 kings are listed in Ayodhya ka Etihaas written about 80 years ago by Rai Bahadur Sita Ram. Professor Subhash Kak of Lousiana University, in his book, The Astronomical Code of the Rig Veda, has also listed 63 ancestors of Shri Ram

who ruled over Ayodhya.

Sri Rams’ ancestors have been traced out as: Shri Ram, King Dashratha, King Aja, King Raghu, King Dilip and so on. From Kashmir to Kanyakumari and from Bengal to Gujarat, everywhere people believe in the reality of Shri Rams’ existence, particularly in the tribal areas of Himachal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the North-East.

Most of the festivals celebrated in these areas revolve around the events in the life of Shri Ram and Shri Krishna. The events and places related to the life of Shri Ram and Sita are true cultural and social heritage of every Indian irrespective of caste and creed. Therefore, it is common heritage.

After all, Shri Ram belonged to the period when Prophet Mohammed or Jesus Christ were not born and Muslim or Christian faiths were unknown to the world.

The words Hindu (resident of Hindustan) and Indian (resident of India) were synonymous. India was also known as Bharat (land of knowledge) and Aryavarta (where Aryans live) and Hindustan (land of “Hindus” – derived from word Indus). During Ram Rajya, the evils of caste system based on birth were non-existent. In fact, Maharishi Valmiki is stated to be of Shudra class (scheduled caste), still Sita lived with him as his adopted daughter after she was banished from Ayodhya.

Luv and Kushgrew in his ashram as his disciples. We need to be proud of the fact that Valmiki was perhaps the first great astronomer and that his study of planetary configurations has stood the test of times. Even the latest computer software have corroborated his astronomical calculations, which proves that he did not commit any error. Error! Filename not specified.

Shabri is stated to be belonging to the Bheel tribe. Shri Rams’ army, which succeeded in defeating Ravana, was formed by various tribals from Central and South India.

The facts, events and all other details relating to the life of Shri Ram are the common heritage of all the Indians including scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, Muslims, Christians, etc.

Prophet Mohammad was born 1,400 years ago.

Jesus Christ was born 2,000 years back.

Gautam Buddha was born 2,600 years back,

whereas Ram was born 7,000 years back.

Hence, discovering the details relating to Shri Rams’ life would be lot more difficult as destruction caused by floods, earthquakes and invasions etc., would be far greater. But, should that stop our quest for learning more about our cultural heritage? Error! Filename not specified.

As Indians, let us all take pride in the fact that the Indian civilization is the most ancient civilization today. It is certainly more than 10,000 years old. Therefore, let us reject the story of Aryan invasion in Indiain 1,500 BC as motivated implantation.

In fact, Max Mueller, who was the creator of this theory had himself rejected it.

Let us admit that during the British Rule, we were educated in the schools based on Macaulay school of thinking which believed that everything Indian was inferior and that entire “Indian literature was not worth even one book rack in England.” If there were similarities in certain features of Indian people and people from Central Europe, then automatic inference drawn was that the Aryans coming from Europe invaded India and settled here.

No one dared of thinking in any other way. Therefore, there is urgency for the historians and all other intellectuals to stop reducing Indian history to myth.

There is need to gather, dig out, search, unearth and analyze all the evidences,

which would throw more light on ancient Indian civilization and culture. There is need for the print and the electronic media to take note of these facts and create atmosphere which would motivate our young and educated youth to carry out research and unearth true facts about the ancient Indian civilization and wisdom and would also encourage them to put across the results of their research before the people fearlessly and with a sense of pride!

 

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From: Pramod Agrawal < >

*जवाहरलाल नेहरू की गलतियां* जो हम आज तक भुगत रहे हैं ।

*1) कोको आइसलैंड* – 1950 में नेहरू ने भारत का ‘ कोको द्वीप समूह’ ( Google Map location -14.100000, 93.365000 ) बर्मा को गिफ्ट दे दिया। यह द्वीप समूह कोलकाता से 900 KM दूर समंदर में है।
बाद में बर्मा ने कोको द्वीप समूह चीन को दे दिया, जहाँ से आज चीन भारत पर नजर रखता है।

*2) काबू व्हेली मनिपुर -* पंडित नेहरू ने 13 Jan 1954 को भारत के मणिपुर प्रांत की काबू व्हेली दोस्ती के तौर पर बर्मा को दे दिया। काबू व्हेली का लगभग क्षेत्रफल 11000 वर्ग किमी है और कहते हैं कि यह कश्मीर से भी अधिक खूबसरत है।
आज बर्मा ने काबू व्हेली का कुछ हिस्सा चीन को दे रखा है। चीन यहां से भी भारत पर नजर रखता है।

*3) भारत – नेपाल विलय -* 1952 में नेपाल के तत्कालीन राजा त्रिभुवन विक्रम शाह ने नेपाल को भारत में विलय कर लेने की बात पंडित नेहरू से कही थी, लेकिन नेहरू ने ये कहकर उनकी बात टाल दी की भारत में नेपाल के विलय से दोनों देशों को फायदे की बजाय नुकसान ज्यादा होगा। यही नहीं, इससे नेपाल का टूरिज्म भी खत्म हो जाएगा।

*4) UN Permanent Seat*- नेहरू ने 1953 में अमेरिका की उस पेशकश को ठुकरा दिया था, जिसमें भारत से सुरक्षा परिषद ( United Nations ) में स्थायी सदस्य के तौर पर शामिल होने को कहा गया था। इसकी जगह नेहरू ने चीन को सुरक्षा परिषद में शामिल करने की सलाह दे डाली।
यही चीन आज पाकिस्तान का हम दर्द बना हुआ है। वह पाक को बचाने के लिए भारत के कई प्रस्तावों को UN में नामंजूर कर चुका है। हाल ही उसने दहशतगर्द मसूद अजहर को अंतरराष्ट्रीय आतंकी घोषित करने के भारतीत प्रस्ताव को वीटो कर उसे बचाया है।

*5) जवाहरलाल नेहरू और लेडी मांउटबेटन* – लेडी माउंटबेटन की बेटी पामेला ने अपनी किताब में लिखा है कि दोनों के बीच अंतरंग संबंध थे। लॉर्ड माउंटबेटन भी दोनों को अकेला छोड़ देते थे। लॉर्ड माउंटबेटन अपनी पत्नी को गैरमर्द के साथ खुला क्यूं छोड़ते थे, यह अभी तक राज है। लोग मानते हैं कि ऐसा कर लॉर्ड माउंटबेटन ने जवाहरलाल नेहरू से भारतीय सेना के और देश के कई राज हथियाए थे।

*6) पंचशील समझौता -* नेहरू चीन से दोस्ती के लिए बहुत ज्यादा उत्सुक थे। नेहरू ने 1954 को चीन के साथ पंचशील समझौता किया। इस समझौते के साथ ही भारत ने तिब्बत को चीन का हिस्सा मान लिया।
नेहरू ने चीन से दोस्ती की खातिर तिब्बत को भरोसे में लिए बिना ही उस पर चीनी ‘कब्जे’ को मंजूरी दे दी। बाद में 1962 में इसी चीन ने भारत पर हमला किया। चीन की सेना इसी तिब्बत से ही भारत की सीमा में प्रवेश किया था।

*7) 1962 भारत चीन युद्ध* -चीनी सेना ने 1962 में भारत को हराया था। हार के कारणों को जानने के लिए भारत सरकार ने ले.जनरल हेंडरसन और कमान्डेंट ब्रिगेडियर भगत के नेतृत्व में एक समिति बनाई थी। दोनों अधिकारियों ने अपनी रिपोर्ट में हार के लिए प्रधानमंत्री जवाहर लाल नेहरू को जिम्मेदार ठहराया था।
चीनी सेना जब अरुणाचल प्रदेश, असम, सिक्किम तक अंदर घुस आई थी, तब भी नेहरू ने हिंदी-चीनी भाई-भाई का नारा लगाते हुए भारतीय सेना को चीन के खिलाफ एक्शन लेने से रोके रखा। परिणाम स्वरूप हमारे कश्मीर का लगभग 14000 वर्ग किमी भाग पर चीन ने कब्जा कर लिया। इसमें कैलाश पर्वत, मानसरोवर और अन्य तीर्थ स्थान आते हैं।
ऐसे थे पंडित जवाहर लाल नेहरू।

भारत का सही इतिहास जानना आपका हक़ है ।

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Pramod Agrawal < > wrote:

A SHORT HISTORY OF INDIA—ITS HEROES AND INVADERS

This relates the invasions, challenges, massacres, and struggles of India’s people and heroes against the criminals who tried to destroy India and its culture. This is presented to preserve the real history of India.

Contents

 

ALEXANDER AND THE GREEKS

THE ARAB INVASIONS

THE TURKISH INVASION

THE MAMLUK (SLAVE) DYNASTY

THE KHILJIS

THE TUGHLAQS

THE SAYYID & LODHI DYNASTIES

THE BAHAMANIS

THE MUGHALS

THE PORTUGUESE

THE BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY

THE INITIAL STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE

THE BRITISH RAJ

CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI

HEROES AFTER SHIVAJI

 

ADDITIONAL HEROES WHO WORKED FOR PROTECTING INDIA AND ITS CULTURE

HALL OF SHAME (Muslim Rulers and Criminals Against India)

For more than two millennia, India has suffered one bloody invasion after another, leaving a Holocaust of millions of lives and a civilization and culture left in near ruins. Through it all, India is the only one of the great ancient civilizations that has survived today. Hinduism is the most ancient and only continuously surviving religion and culture that has successfully maintained itself while so many other cultures and civilizations have vanished. No other ancient civilization has retained its ancient religion and culture under the onslaught of the western Abrahamic monotheist religions.

The first of the major invasions came from Alexander of Macedonia. His invasion of India was intended to bring Greek culture to India and to encourage cultural exchange between the Indic and Hellenic worlds. This invasion was mild compared to the savage invasions of Islam, which continue even today, attempting to decimate the Indian religions of Dharma and the Culture of Bhaaratvarsha (India). The contemporary French writer François Gautier has said, “The massacres perpetuated by Muslims in India are unparalleled in history, bigger than the Holocaust of the Jews by the Nazis; or the massacre of the Armenians by the Turks; more extensive even than the slaughter of the South American native populations by the invading Spanish and Portuguese.”

Just as India was about to successfully throw off the yoke of Islamic barbarism after nearly 1000 years of slaughter, the British and Portuguese came with their missionaries. They tried to finish what Islam had begun, beginning centuries more of colonial strangulation of the great Vedic Culture of India, until finally India won her Independence in 1947. By then, so much damage had been done that India was forced to accept partition along religious lines and give up much of her northern territories to what are today the Islamic States of Pakistan and Bangladesh.

What is left of modern India is still rife with a growing population of Muslims and the continuing threat of Christian missionaries, openly seeking to wipe out Hinduism, which is not only the majority religion of India, but more than that, the Indian way of life and her very culture. Here we present a brief overview of the history of the foreign invasions and occupations of India.

ALEXANDER AND THE GREEKS

336 B.C.E. – 323 B.C.E.

Alexander was the King of Macedonia, a nation north of the city-states of ancient Greece, which was heavily influenced by the Hellenic (Greek) culture. Alexander was just 21 years old in the year 336 B.C.E., when he decided to invade India, after having conquered much of Asia Minor and the Middle East. At the time, King Taxiles ruled a large area in India. When he heard that Alexander was coming, Taxiles did not wait, but went in person to meet him in peace. “Why should we make war on each other,” Taxiles said, “if the reason for your coming is not to rob us of our water and our food? Those are the only things that a wise man has no choice but to fight for. As for any other riches or possessions, if I have more than you I am ready to share. But if fortune has been better to you than to me, then I have no objection to being in your debt.”

 

These courteous words pleased Alexander, and he replied: “Do you think your kind words and courteous conduct will avoid a contest between us? No, I will not let you off so easily. I will do battle with you on these terms: no matter how much you give me, I will give more in return.”

 

 

 

Thereupon Taxiles made many fine presents to Alexander, but Alexander responded with presents of even greater value and topped them off with a thousand talents in gold coins. This generosity displeased Alexander’s old friends but won the hearts of many of the Indians.

 

 

 

King Porus, however, refused to submit, and he took up a position to prevent Alexander from crossing the Hydaspes River. Porus was a huge man, and when mounted on his war elephant he looked in the same proportion as an ordinary man on a horse. After a long fight, Alexander won the victory, and Porus came to him as a prisoner. Alexander asked him how he expected to be treated, and Porus replied: “As a king.” When Alexander asked a second time, Porus explained that in those words was included everything that a man could possibly want.   Alexander not only allowed Porus to keep his kingdom as a satrap, but he also gave him more territory.

 

This was a costly victory, however. Many Macedonians died, and so did Alexander’s old war horse, Bucephalus. This grieved Alexander so much that it seemed as though he had lost an old friend. On that spot he ordered a city to be built, named Bucephalia after his beloved horse, Bucephalus.

 

 

 

Such a difficult victory over only 22,000 Indians [May 326 B.C.] took the edge off the courage of the Macedonians. They had no enthusiasm for Alexander’s proposed crossing of the Ganges, a river said to be four miles wide and six hundred feet deep, to encounter an army on the other side consisting of 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 chariots, and 6,000 war elephants.

 

 

 

Alexander was so angry at their reluctance that he shut himself up in his tent, saying that if they would not cross the Ganges, he owed them no thanks for anything they had done so far. But finally the persuasions of his friends, and the pleas of his soldiers, got Alexander to agree to turn back.

 

 

 

To exaggerate his reputation, Alexander left bridles and armor that were much bigger than normal, and huge altars to the gods. On a flotilla of rafts and barges, Alexander’s army floated down the Indus River.

 

Along the way, they stopped to take some fortified cities, and at one of them Alexander came very close to losing his life. Alexander was the first one up the ladders onto the wall of the city of the Mallians, and then he jumped down into the town with only two of his guards behind him.

 

 

 

Before the rest of the Macedonians could catch up and save him, Alexander had taken an arrow in the ribs and had been knocked dizzy by a club. He was unconscious when they carried him away, and he fainted when the doctors cut out the arrow. Rumors spread that Alexander was dead.

 

 

 

While in India, Alexander took ten of the Brahmins prisoner. These men had a great reputation for intelligence, so Alexander decided to give them a test. He announced that the one who gave the worst answer would be the first to die, and he made the oldest Brahmin the judge of the competition.

 

 

 

Which are more numerous, Alexander asked the first one, the living or the dead? “The living,” said the Brahmin, “because the dead no longer count.”

 

Which produces more creatures, the sea or the land? Alexander asked the second. “The land,” was his answer, “because the sea is only a part of it.”

 

The third was asked which animal was the smartest of all, and the Brahmin replied: “The one we have not found yet.”

 

 

 

Alexander asked the fourth what argument he had used to stir up the Indians to fight, and he answered: “Only that one should either live nobly or die nobly.”

 

Which is older: day or night? was Alexander’s question to the fifth, and the answer he got was: “Day is older, by one day at least.” When he saw that Alexander was not satisfied with this answer, the Brahmin added: “Strange questions get strange answers.”

 

What should a man do to make himself loved? asked Alexander, and the sixth Brahmin replied: “Be powerful without being frightening.”

 

 

 

What does a man have to do to become a god? he asked the seventh, who responded: “Do what is impossible for a man.”

 

The question to the eighth was whether death or life was stronger, and his answer: “Life is stronger than death, because it bears so many miseries.”

 

The ninth Brahmin was asked how long it was proper for a man to live, and he said: “Until it seems better to die.”

 

 

 

Then Alexander turned to the judge, who decided that each one had answered worse than another. “You will die first, then, for giving such a decision,” said Alexander. “Not so, mighty king,” said the Brahmin, “if you want to remain a man of your word. You said that you would kill first the one who made the worst answer.” Alexander gave all of the Brahmins presents and set them free, even though they had persuaded the Indians to fight him.

 

 

 

Alexander’s voyage down the Indus took seven months.   When he finally arrived at the Indian Ocean, he decided not to take the army home by ship but to march them through the Gedrosian Desert.   After sixty miserable days, they arrived at Gedrosia, where they finally found enough to eat and drink. Many died in that desert: out of the 120,000 infantry and 15,000 cavalry that Alexander took with him into India, only one in four came back.

 

 

 

 

 

THE ARAB INVASIONS

 

636 C.E. – 850 C.E.

 

In one of the Hadiths (Muslim scripture) the Prophet Muhammad is quoted as saying “Two groups of my Ummah, Allah has protected from the hellfire: a group that will conquer India and a group that will be with Isa ibnu Maryam (Jesus, son of Mary).” The first attempted invasion of India by Muslims occurred in 636 CE — under Caliph Umar, within four years of Muhammad’s death. The first 16 invasion attempts utterly failed. But the 17th attempt to invade India by Muhammad bin Qâsim, which was carried out against the wishes of the Kalifate, was successful. Muhammad bin Qâsim marched to Sindh with 15,000 men. He arrived at Debal, a port city near the modern Karachi, in 711. There he was bolstered by the arrival of his artillery by sea, and took the town. This was followed by his conquest of Alor, located north of Hyderabad in June 712. In the fighting before Aror the Raja Dâhir was slain. The next year he also conquered the important city of Multan.

 

 

 

Following the rapid conquest of Sindh, Arab progress was checked. In part this was caused by internal division. In 714 Hajjâj died, and in 715 the Calif Walid I (705-715) took interest in the campaign and recalled the conquering general, Muhammad bi Qâsim. Arab control thereafter rapidly disintegrated, leading many local rulers to repudiate their allegiance to the Arabs. The Arabs also met stiff resistance from neighboring Indian kings. When an Arab governor of Sindh, Junaid, sought to seize Kacch and Malwa, he was foiled by the Pratihara and Gurjara kings. The Arabs were thus unable to expand beyond Sindh, but they were able to maintain their hold on the province. In 985 an Ismaili Fatamid dynasty declared its independence in Multan.

 

 

 

 

 

THE TURKISH INVASION

 

1000 C.E. – 1206 C.E.

 

The break-up of the Gurjara-Pratihara empire led to a phase of political uncertainty in north India. As a result, little attention was paid to the emergence of the aggressive and expansionist Turks from north-west.

 

 

 

Rajputana States

 

 

 

The three most important of the Rajput states in north India were the Gahrwals of Kanauj, the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chauhans of Ajmer.

 

 

 

There were other smaller dynasties in different parts of the country, such as the Kalachuris in the area around Jabalpur, the Chandellas in Bundelkhand, the Chalukyas of Gujarat, the Tomars of Delhi, etc. Bengal remained under the control of the Palas and later, the Senas.

 

 

 

There was a continuous struggle and warfare between the various Rajput states. It was these rivalries which made it impossible for the Rajput rulers to join hands to oust the Ghaznavids from the Punjab. In fact, the Ghaznavids felt strong enough to make raids even up to Ujjain.

 

 

 

Most of the Rajput rulers of the time were champions of Hinduism, though some of them also patronized Jainism. The Rajput rulers protected the privileges of the brahmanas and of the caste system. Between the tenth and the twelfth century, temple-building activity in north India reached it’s climax.

 

 

 

The most representative temples of this type are the group of temples at Khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh. Most of these temples were built by the Chandellas, who ruled in the area from the beginning of the ninth to the end of the thirteenth century. In Orissa, magnificent examples of temple architecture are the Lingaraja temple (11th century) and the Sun temple of Konark (13th century). The famous Jagannath temple at Puri also belongs to this period.

 

 

 

Mahmud of Ghazni

 

Mahmud of Ghazni raided the country in 1000 AD, with his first great victory against the Hindushahi kings of Peshawar. The muslim rulers of Multan were the second targets. In a short period of 25 years, he is said to have made 17 raids into India. From the Punjab, Mahmud raided Nagarkot in the Punjab hills and Thanesar near Delhi.

 

 

 

His most daring raids, however, were against Kanauj in 1018 and against the fabulously rich Somnath temple in Gujarat. No attempt was made to annex any of these areas. The rich spoils from the temples, which were repositories of wealth, helped him to consolidate his rule and embellish Ghazni with palaces and mosques. He died in Ghazni in 1030.

 

 

 

Muhammad of Ghur

 

The second Turkish attack was led by Mu’izzu’d-Din Muhammad (also known as Muhammad Ghuri), who conquered Sindh and Lahore in 1182. Soon after, he commenced his attack on the Rajput kingdoms. Prithviraj Chauhan successfully led the Rajputs against Ghuri at the first battle of Tarain in 1191 AD. However, at the second battle of Tarain in 1192 AD, Prithviraj was defeated and the kingdom of Delhi fell to Muhammad Ghuri. Before Ghuri’s assassination in 1206, Turkish control had been established along the whole length of the Ganga. Bihar and Bengal were also overrun.

 

Ghuri’s conquests started a new era in Indian history… The Delhi Sultanate

 

 

 

 

 

THE MAMLUK (SLAVE) DYNASTY

 

1206 C.E. – 1290 C.E

 

Ghuri’s conquest became the nucleus of a new political entity of India – the Delhi Sultanate. For almost one hundred years after that, the Delhi Sultanate was involved in foreign invasions, internal conflicts among the Turkish leaders and the dispossessed Rajput rulers and chiefs to regain their independence.

 

 

 

Ghuri left his Indian possessions in the care of his former slave, General Qutb-ud- din Aibak. He played an important part in the expansion of the Turkish sultanate in India after the battle of Tarrain.

 

 

 

On the death of his master, Aibak severed his links with Ghazni and asserted his

 

independence, and founded the Slave Dynasty (mamluks). This helped to prevent India being drawn into central asian politics and enabled the Delhi Sultanate to develop independently.

 

 

 

Iltutmish (1210 AD – 1236 AD), son-in-law of Aibak – succeeded Aibak as the sultan by defeating Aibak’s son. Thus, the principle of heredity, of son succeeding his father was checked at the outset. Iltutmish must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish conquests in north India.

 

 

 

He gave the new state capital, Delhi, a monarchical form of government and governing class. He introduced Iqta – grant of revenue from a territory in lieu of salary. He maintained a central army and introduced coins of Tanka (silver) and Jital (copper). The famous Qutub Minar was completed during his reign. He despatched an expedition against the Chalukyas of Gujarat but it was repelled with losses.

 

 

 

Around this time, Mongols under the leadership of Ghinghiz Khan, swept across central Asia and mercilessly sacked the kingdoms. They periodically crossed river Indus to attack Punjab and Iltutmish had to keep constant check on this side.

 

 

 

During his last years, Iltutmish finally nominated his daughter Raziya (1236 AD – 1239 AD) to the throne. Raziya was the First and only Muslim lady to sit on Delhi Throne. In order to assert her claim, Raziya had to contend against her brothers as well as against powerful Turkish nobles, and could rule only for three years.

 

 

 

Though brief, her rule had a number of interesting features like the beginning of the struggle for power between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs, sometimes called as the forty or Chahalgami. She sent an expedition against Ranthambhor to control the Rajputs, and successfully established law and order in the length and breadth of her kingdom. In 1239 AD, an internal rebellion broke out in which Raziya was imprisoned and killed by bandits.

 

 

 

The struggle between the monarchy and the Turkish chiefs continued till one of the Turkish chiefs Balban (Ulugh khan) (1265 AD – 1285 AD) ascended the throne. During the earlier period he held the position of naib or deputy to Nasiruddin Mahmud, a younger son of Iltultmish. He broke the Chahalgami and made the Sultan all important.

 

 

 

After Balban’s death, there was again confusion in Delhi for some times. In 1290, the Khilji’s, under the leadership of Jalaluddin Khilji, wrested power from the incompetent successor of Balban.

 

 

 

 

 

THE KHILJIS

 

1290 C.E. – 1320 C.E.

 

The Khiljis used their Afghan descent to win the loyalties of the discontented nobles, who felt that they had been neglected by earlier Slave sultans.

 

 

 

Jalaluddin Khilji (1290 AD – 1296 AD) tried to mitigate some of the harsh aspects of Balban’s rule. He was the first ruler to put forward the view that the state should be based on the willing support of the governed and that since the majority of Indians were Hindus, the state cannot be truly Islamic.

 

 

 

Alauddin Khilji (1296 AD – 1316 AD) treacherously murdered his uncle and father-in-law, Jalaluddin. By harsh methods, he cowed down the nobles and made them completely subservient to the crown. He was ambitious and dreamt of an all India empire.

 

 

 

Over a twenty five years period, Malwa, Gujarat and Rajasthan was brought under his control. To solve the water problems in summer, he constructed lot of Baolis (Wells). His famous general Malik Kafur led the campaign (1308 AD – 1312 AD) to the south and defeated the Yadavas of Deogiri, the Kakityas of Warangal and the Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra.

 

 

 

Alauddin also repelled the Mongols successfully. His military success was because of the creation of a large standing army directly recruited and paid by the state. He revoked all grants made by previous sultans, introduced price control covering almost the entire market and rationed the grain.

 

 

 

In order to effectively subordinate nobles, he banned drinking of intoxicants. The sultan’s permission was necessary before marriage could be arranged among the member of nobility, so that marriage alliances of a political nature could be prevented. No further rebellion took place during his life time, but in the long run his methods proved harmful to the dynasty. As the old nobility was destroyed, the new nobility was taught to accept any one who could ascend the throne of Delhi.

 

Kings followed in quick succession after his death, till in 1320, a group of officers led by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq raised the banner of revolt and put an end to the Khilji dynasty.

 

 

THE TUGHLAQS

 

1320 C.E. – 1412 C. E.

 

The Tughlaqs also wished to rule the whole of India. Ghyasuddin’s (1320 AD – 1325 AD) campaign to Warrangal, Orissa and Bengal were directed towards this end. He built the city Tughlaqabad near Delhi.

 

By 1324 AD, the territories of the Delhi sultanate reached upto Madurai. However, his economic policy was not consistent with his political ambitions. As the Iqta holders were permitted their earlier perquisites, power gradually slipped back into the hands of nobles.

 

Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq (1325 AD – 1351 AD) succeeded his father and was referred to as an ill-starred idealist, whose experiments generally ended in failure. He extended the kingdom beyond India, into Central Asia.

 

To meet the expenses of the large army Muhammad increased the tax but the peasants refused and rebelled. Though the rebellion was suppressed, the taxation policy had to be revised. He decided to issue token coins in brass and copper which had the same value as silver coins. But due to the absence of a central mint, people began to forge the new coins, and the token coins had to be discontinued.

 

Muhammad Bin-Tughlaq decided to move his capital from Delhi to Deogir (Daulatabad), in order to control the Deccan and extend the empire into the south. The plan ended in failure because of discontent amongst those who had been forced to move to Deogir and Muhammad also found that he could not keep a watch on the northern frontier.

 

In 1334 bubonic plague wiped out more than half his army, and the army ceased to be effective. Due to this, in 1334 the Pandyan kingdom (Madurai) rejected the authority of the sultanate and this was followed by Warangal. In 1336 the Vijayanagara empire and in 1337 the Bahamani kingdom were founded. They built magnificent capitals and cities with many splendid buildings, promoted arts and also provided law and order and the development of commerce and handicrafts. Thus while the forces of disintegration gradually triumphed in north India, south India and the Deccan had a long spell of stable government.

 

Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351 AD – 1388 AD) succeeded Muhammad. Having become sultan with the support of the nobles and the theologians, he had to appease them. His death was followed by civil war among his descendants.

 

The sultanate became weak and in 1398, the Mongols, under the leadership of Timur (Tamerlane), mercilessly sacked and plundered Delhi. Timur returned to central Asia leaving his nominee to rule in the Punjab.

 

 

THE SAYYID & LODHI DYNASTIES

 

1414 C.E. 1526 C.E.

 

The Tughlaq dynasty ended soon after the Timurs invasion but the sultanate survived, though it was merely a shadow of its former self. Timurs nominee captured Delhi and was proclaimed the new sultan and the first of Sayyid Dynasty (1414 AD – 1451 AD), which was to rule the earlier half of the fifteenth century.

 

Their rule was short-lived and confined to a radius of some 200 miles around Delhi. They kept the machinery going until a more capable dynasty, the Lodhis, took over. The Lodhis were of pure Afghan origin, and brought an eclipses to the Turkish nobility. Bahlul Lodhi established himself in Punjab after the Timur’s invasion. The most important Lodhi Sultan was Sikandar Lodhi (1489 – 1517), who controlled the Ganga Valley as far as Bengal. He moved his capital from Delhi, to be able to control the kingdom better, to a new town which later become famous as the city of Agra.

 

The last, Lodhi Ibrahim, asserted his absolute power and did not consider the tribal feelings. This lead to his making enemies with them. Finally they plotted with Babar and succeeded in overthrowing him in 1526 at the first battle of Panipat.

 

As the power of the Sultanate declined, a number of other kingdoms arose.

 

In Western India – Malwa and Gujarat,

 

In Eastern India – Jaunpur and Bengal,

 

In Northern India – Kashmir, and

 

In the Deccan and the south – The Vijayanagara and the Bahamani.

 

As the Islamic population in India swelled, the identity of the Indian Moslem acquired a new definition. Islam now actively influenced most facets of life. The Hindu elite adopted the purdha system and their language began to be written in Arabic script, leading to a new language, Urdu. Calligraphy came into its own and was raised to the highest form of aesthetic expression.

 

Around this time on the north-western part of India, especially around Punjab a new religion Sikhism started to gain popularity

 

 

THE BAHAMANIS

 

1346C.E. – 1689 C.E.

 

The Bahamani kingdom was founded by Hasan Gangu, who led a rebellion against Sultan Muhammad- Bin-Tughlaq and proclaimed the independence of the Bahamani kingdom (1346 AD).

 

He took the title of Bahaman Shah and became the first ruler of the dynasty. This kingdom included the whole of the northern Deccan upto the river Krishna. South of the kingdom was the Vijayanagara Empire with which it had to fight continueous wars for various reasons.

 

The most remarkable figure in the Bahamani kingdom was Firuz Shah Bahamani (1397 AD – 1422 AD), who fought three major battles with the Vijayanagara Empire without any major result. He was well acquainted with religious and natural sciences. He wanted to make the Deccan the cultural centre of India.

 

Ferhishta – the court poet, calls him an orthodox Muslim, his only weakness being his fondness for drinking wine and listening to music. Firuz Shah was compelled to abdicate in favour of his brother Ahmad Shah I, who was called a saint (wali) on account of his association with the famous Sufi Gesu Daraz. He invaded Warangal and annexed most of its territories.

 

The loss of Warangal changed the balance of power in south India. The Bahamani kingdom gradually extended and reached its climax under the prime ministership of Mahmud Gawan (1466 AD – 1481 AD). One of the most difficult problems which faced the Bahamanis was a strife among the nobles, who were divided into Deccanis (old-comers) and Afaqis or gharibs (new-comers).

 

Since, Gawan was a new-comer, it was hard for him to win the confidence of the Deccanis. His broad policy of conciliation, could not stop the party strife. In 1482, Gawan who was over seventy years, was executed by Sultan Muhammad Shah of the Deccan.

 

After his death, the party strife became more intense and various governors became independent and were finally divided into five parts, namely, Adil Shahi of Bijapur, Qutub Shahi of Golconda, Nizam Shahi of Ahmadnagar, Barid Shahi of Bidar and Imad Shahi of Berar.

 

This kingdom together crusaded against Vijayanagara Empire and defeated it in 1565. Later on, Imad Shahi was conquered by Nizamshah (1574 AD) and Barid Shahi was annexed by Adilshah (1619 AD). These three kingdoms played a leading role in the Deccan politics till their absorption in the Mughal empire during the seventeenth century. It was Aurangzeb, the Mughal king, who after the death of Shivaji, marched towards the south and annexed Bijapur (1686 AD) and Golconda (1689 AD) and brought an end to the Bahamani kingdom.

 

One of the largest domes of the world, Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur and Charminar at Hyderabad were the fine examples of architecture of this time. The Bahamanis, in many respects were similar to the Delhi sultanate. Their income came almost entirely from land and the administration revolved around the assessment and collection of land revenue.

 

The Bahamani kingdom acted as a cultural bridge between the north and the south. The culture which developed as a result had its own specific features which were distinct from north India.

 

These cultural traditions were continued by the successors states and also influenced the development of Mughal culture during the period.

 

 

THE MUGHALS

 

1526 C.E. – 1857 C.E.

 

The Mughal period can be called a second classical age in northern India. In this cultural development, the Indian traditions were amalgamated with the Turko-Iranian culture, brought to the country by the Mughals.

 

The Mughal rulers of India kept up the closest of contacts with Iran and there was a stream of scholars and artists coming over the frontiers to seek fame and fortune at the brilliant court of the Great Mughal, Babar.

 

Babar (1526 AD – 1530 AD)

 

Babar founder of the Mughal dynasty, was the king of Kabul. He was invited to India to fight against Ibrahim Lodhi. He confronted and defeated Lodhi in 1526 at the first battle of Panipat.

 

Babar was the first king to bring artillery to India and succeeded because the cavalry that he had brought from central Asia, which was new to the Indian army, and the fact that he was a good general, with an easily moved army.

 

Before his death, he had made himself the master of the Punjab, Delhi and the Ganga plains as far as Bihar. He wrote Tuzuk-i-Babari an autobiography, containing a lively description of India, in Turkish.

 

Humayun (1530 AD – 1556 AD)

 

He inherited a vast unconsolidated empire and an empty treasury. He also had to deal with the growing power of the Afghan Sher Shah, from the east, who had Bihar and Bengal under him. Sher Shah defeated Humayun in Kannauj (1540 AD) and Humayun passed the next twelve years in exile. In 1555, after Sher Shah’s death, Humayun regained the throne from his weak successor.

 

Akbar, his son, succeed him in 1556 AD, and consolidated the empire. He was such a good builder that the edifice he had erected lasted for another hundred years in spite of inadequate successors.

 

There was great subversion of Indian culture, in an effort to Islamicize it. Indian music was adopted as a whole and with enthusiasm by the Muslim Courts and the nobility. Literature and poetry were also encouraged and among the noted poets in Hindi some were Muslims. Ibrahim Adil Shah, the ruler of Bijapur, wrote a treatise in Hindi on Indian music.

 

Akbar (1556 AD – 1605 AD)

 

He consolidated the occupying Mughal empire. Daring and reckless, an able general, and ruthless. An idealist and a dreamer, and yet a man of action and a leader of men who roused the passionate loyalty of his followers.

 

He was only thirteen, when he came to the throne. His first conflict was with Hemu, a general of Adil Shah, under whom the Afghan resistance had regrouped. King Hemu was the only one Hindu King who ever ruled the Delhi Throne in Indian History. At the second battle of Panipat (1556 AD), Hemu was defeated and Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra. Akbar annexed Malwa and brought a major part of Rajasthan under his control. He built the Buland Darwaza, after his successful campaign in dominating Gujarat. Most of the Rajputs were forced to recognise his suzerainty, except Mewar, which continued to resist under the great hero Rana Pratap and his son Amar Singh.

 

After his success in military activities and administration, Akbar’s insatiable quest and his personal need led him to build the Ibadat-Khana – Hall of prayer (1575 AD). Initially it was open only to the Sunnis but later in 1578, it was opened to people of all religions in an effort to win over those who refused to convert. However, in 1582, he discontinued the debates in the Ibadat-Khana.

 

Later the academic, spiritual and metaphysical aspects of it crystallized into Tauhid-i-Ilahi (Divine Monotheism). Akbar did not create a new religion but suggested a new religious path based on the common truths of all religions, which continued to place Islam in a supreme position. The word Din (Faith) of Din-i-Ilahi, was applied after eighty years.

 

Akbar claimed to believe that a ruler was the guardian of his subjects and had to look after their welfare irrespective of their sect or creed. He claimed a policy of Sulh-i-kul (peace to all).

 

Because of his attempt to convince the native population that he was a generous and tolerant tyrant, he has come to be called by the gullible as one of the great rulers in Indian history, a lie still believed by many today.

 

Salim (1605 AD – 1627 AD)

 

Akbar’s son, Salim succeeded him as Jahangir after his death. He strengthened his control over Bengal and his four successive campaigns forced Amar Singh of Mewar to accept his suzerainty. The Mughal empire became more vulnerable to attacks from central and western Asia. Towards the end of his reign, he had to deal with the rebellion of his son Shah Jahan. Toward the end of his reign, the East India Company (1600 AD) was established in India. An important event of his reign was the active interest taken by Nur Jahan, his queen, in matters of the State and she also ruled the empire when he was ill.

 

Shah Jahan (1628 AD – 1658 AD)

 

On his succession to the throne, the first thing he had to face was revolts in Bhundelkhand and the Deccan. The former he put down easily and the latter came into control with difficulty. Meanwhile the Marathas also emerged as a major threat to the authority of the Mughals.

 

The Famous peacock throne and the Red Fort were completed by him. He seized and remodeled a great Shiva Temple, the Tejo Mahila, and turned it into a graveyard for one of his dead wives and renamed it Taj Mahal. His failing health started a war of succession amongst his four sons in 1657.

 

Aurangzeb (1658 AD – 1707 AD)

 

Aurangzeb, the third son treacherously emerged victorious by killing his brothers and imprisoned his father in Agra fort till his death. He ruled for almost 50 years. During his long reign the Mughal empire reached its territorial climax. At its height, it stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, and from the Hindu Kush in the west to Chittagong in the east.

 

He was an orthodox in his outlook and kept himself within the narrow confines of the Islamic law. He discarded Akbar’s supposedly secular principles and vigorously enforced the Jaziya Tax on all non-muslims with severity and destroyed many temples. This did not make Muslims more loyal to the Islamic state, although, the vast native Hindu majority became even more alienated.

 

Most of his time was spent in trying to put down the revolts in different parts of his empire. While the empire was rent by strife and revolt, the new Maratha power was growing and consolidating itself in western India. Shivaji, the Maratha King, stopped Aurangzeb’s mission of expanding towards the south. However after Shivaji’s death Aurangzeb accomplished his mission of southward expansion. Apart from him, no one else, except the Britishers held India under a single rule.

 

Aurangzeb, the last of Mughals, tried to put the clock back, and in his attempt broke up the empire. After his death, the Mughal empire collapsed with internal conflicts among the successors and was reduced to the area around Delhi.

 

The various provinces declared their independence and the Marathas under the leadership of Peshwas, gradually extended their hold in North India. Foreign invasion of Nadir Shah Abdali in 1729 AD and Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1747-61 AD further weakened the empire. The last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was imprisoned by the Britishers after the 1857 mutiny.

 

THE PORTUGUESE

 

India’s connection with the west has predominantly been related to trade. Amongst the modern Europeans, the Portuguese were the first to establish themselves in India and the last of the Europeans to leave. They arrived as early as 1498 via the ocean route discovered by Vasco-da-Gama.

 

He was the first discoverer of sea route via Cape of Good Hope to India, when Constantinople came under Arab power. Portuguese left behind Roman Catholic Christianity with its Baroque churches, its musical liturgy and its great monastic order committed to education. What happened to India when the Portuguese arrived?

 

European interest in India has persisted since classical times and for very cogent reasons. Europe had much to steal from India such as spices, textiles and other oriental products. The best classical accounts are in fact the commercial ones. When direct contact was lost with the fall of Rome and the rise of the Muslims, the trade was carried on through middlemen. In the late Middle Ages it increased with the increasing prosperity of Europe. It should be remembered that the spice trade was not solely a luxury trade at that time. Spices were needed to preserve meat through the winter (cattle had to be slaughtered in late autumn through lack of winter fodder) and to combat the taste of decay. Wine, in the absence of ancient or modern methods of maturing, had to be ‘mulled’ with spices. This trade suffered two threats in the later Middle Ages. There was

 

the threat of Mongol and Turkish invasion which interfered with the land routes and threatened to engulf the sea route through Egypt, and there was the threat of monopoly shared between the Venetians and Egyptians.

 

In 1510 Affonso de Albuquerque captured the island of Goa on the west coast of India from the Sultan of Bijapur and made it the capital of the Portuguese eastern empire. Its strong points besides Goa were Socotra off the Red Sea (he could not take Aden), Ormuz in the Persian Gulf, Diu in Gujrat, Malacca, the entrepot for the Far East and the spice trade in the East Indies, and Macao in China. The function of Goa was to supervise Malabar, to control the pilgrim traffic to Mecca as well as the general trade to Egypt, Iraq and Persia, and of Malacca to control the East Indian spices at their source.

 

However, the Portuguese irked some of the Mughal and preceding rulers because of the toll they took of the trade from the port of Surat and the pilgrim traffic. In seizing and retaining their strong points they acquired a reputation for cruelty and peridy because their practice on both these points was below the current Indian standard. They were deeply impregnated with the idea that no faith need be kept with an infidel. It was from this period that the word feringi (lit.farangi, frank) acquired the opprobrium of which echoes may still be heard today.

 

However, the Mughal Emperor, Jahangir admired their pictures and had them copied. Emperor Akbar listened with interest to Jesuit Father’s discourses. The New Testament was translated into Persian. However, during the whole of the 16th century the Portuguese disputed with the Muslims the supremacy of the Indian seas, and the antagonism between Christianity and Islam became gradually more intense. In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese navigator commanded the first expedition to sail around the world. In the Collins Encyclopaedia it is written that Magellan set sail to check the power of Muslim navy and fleet that was dominant. In 1560, the Portuguese

 

being intolerant in religion, introduced the Inquisition with all its horrors. This was regarded as sub-standard from the Indian standpoint, advertising this trait in their rough handling of Syrian Christians of Malabar to secure their submission to the Catholic faith.

 

Socially the policy of Albuquerque in encouraging mixed marriages had important results. His object was to rear a population possessing Portuguese blood and imbued with Portuguese Catholic culture who would be committed by race and taste to the Portuguese settlements and so form a permanent self-perpetuating garrison. The result was the race long known as Luso-Indians and now as Goansese or Goans. They are mainly Indian in blood, Catholic in religion, and partially western in outlook. In recent times, they have spread all over India as traders and professionals, a less successful version of the Parsis. (Of all the Asians in Britain, a majority of whom are Muslim, the first Asian MP had to be a Roman Catholic of Goanese descent, Keith Vaz).

 

Some Portuguese words have even crept into the Urdu language such as the names of items for furniture (mayze for desk, almaari for cupboard/wardrobe). Also vindaloo (curry) is part Portuguese and part Urdu: vian is Portuguese for meat and aloo is the Urdu for potato – thus we have meat and potato curry.

 

The Portuguese were soon followed by European rivals like the French, Dutch and British. Rivalry between the Dutch and English resulted in the Dutch East India Company “winning” Southeast Asia and Indonesia (known to Europeans as the East Indies); and the British East India Company having to settle for “second-best”, that is India.

 

THE BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY

 

The East India Company chartered by the British crown and ultimately responsible to the parliament, launched British rule in India. The British East India Company was established under a Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I for 15 years for spice trading on 31st December 1600 AD with the capital of £70,000.

 

By the middle of the eighteenth century, the company succeeded in establishing power in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and the east coast. After the battle of Plassey, in 1757, they secured permission from the Mughals to collect land revenue from these provinces in return for an annual tribute and maintaining of order and peace.

 

They collected the land revenues through the local Nawab and took control of his army. This gave them power without responsibility. The Company took control of Mysore by defeating Tipu Sultan in 1792 and the Marathas were finally defeated in 1817 AD – 1819 AD. Further the company expanded its rule by defeating Nepal in 1814-16, Sind in 1843, Punjab in 1848-49 and Burma in 1886.

 

The cruel management of the company ultimately lead to the mutiny of 1857, after which its rule over India ended and the British Crown officially took over the administration in 1858.

 

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The story of the 1947 partition of India.

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